In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
The coastal margins are seen to be potential sources of hazardous trace elements, as the effluents are discharged into waterbodies and finally flushed out to the open ocean. About 17104 m3/day of effluents reach the Sea from various small and large scale industries situated along the southwest coast (Udayakumar et al., 2014). The symptoms are there to show considerable impact of deterioration of estuarine waters on the coastal ecosystem (Jayakumar et al., 2001). Hence, determining the level of metals in the coastal margins could provide a better understanding of possible sources, ecological risk, and transport
This will also reduce the skin factor and likewise, the cost disposal for cleaning processes of casings and pipes has also decline ( Ostroot, et al. 2007; Bennion D. B. , Thomas, Bietz & Bennion D. W. , 1998; Bennion, D. B., Lunan & Saponja, 1998; Mitchell, 2007; Akdeniz, 2012 ; Bennion D. B. & Thomas, 1994). On the other side of this discussion, overbalance drilling has a very high differential sticking rate occurring in the well. Differential sticking takes place when the drilling filtrate left the wellbore and forms an impermeable barrier or in its petroleum term, a cake.
One of the most important causes of Nile contamination is discharging of industrial facilities (Mohamed et al., 1998). Factory waste contains heavy metals such as, Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), which cause toxicity. In this essay, the discussion will point to Nile contamination as a controversial issue and highlight some health problems which occur as consequences of using polluted water in Egypt. Likewise, the essay will raise some scientific methods to determine the percentage of heavy metal in water supported by example. Then it will suggest some chemical technical solutions to reduce the percentage of heavy metals in Nile and reuse it again for many purposes.
Not only does do offshore drilling rigs pollute the air but they also pollute the oceans and create a deadly environment for marine life and reefs. This shows how one small mistake made by oil drilling companies is extremely dangerous to the environment and could even wipe out populations of marine life which can create dead zones. Majority of pollution comes from storing toxic oils that are dangerous to the oceans. The amount of air pollutants is not that much compared to other contributors of air pollution but they all add up and will slowly destroy our
When liquids and other materials begin to degrade, they release a juice that can be toxic if consumed. Leachate can not only be stored by the soil and make it less fertile, but also contaminate the source of water that is close by. This liquid can completely ruin the whole water system for those that depended on it. Water pollution has increased over the last couple of years and “in the U.S. 40% of rivers and lakes are considered too polluted to support normal activities”
Fracking contaminates the underground soil which has its consequences. According to the article, it can cause serious harm to vegetation and any pressure that builds up could possibly cause an earthquake. Fracking is considered more dangerous than conventional drilling since the possibility of the release of methane gas to the atmosphere is greater doing this method. Allstadt also adds that companies and industries should be paying very close attention in trying to develop cleaner energy sources (Allstadt 1). This gas is considered a greenhouse gas due to it having the same effect on the atmosphere like carbon dioxide.
Hich carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere traps heat which is transferred to the ocean; it is also absorbed into the ocen, which causes the ocean to become more acidic. This is the most frequent cause of coral death. In comparison to dynamite fishing, spear fishing, land pollution, sea pollution, tourism, overfishing and invasive species, the increase in greenhouse gasses is the main cause of coral reef destruction globally, as it changes the temperature, current and content of the ocean, and it causes an increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters. The rise in temperature of the atmosphere causes the sea level to rise as a result of glaciers melting and thermal expansion (1), this causes a change in the density and salinity. This change in density causes currents to vary, becoming more or less violent and varying in temperature (2), causing physical destruction and aiding coral bleaching.
Unfortunately our oceans are suffering from many types of pollutants that are prominent in our environment. One of the main distributors of pollution is sewage. Sewage and other polluting substances flow into the world's rivers and drainage pipes until all of the substances dump out into the ocean. In addition to sewage, other chemicals finds its way to the oceans, which leads to the reduction of oxygen being released into the atmosphere. With this in place, the waters become murky and filled with substances that can harm marine life.
Water and sand are inserted into the shale formations at high pressures in order to make cracks in the shale that helps recover natural gases from below the Earth’s surface. Despite the fact that it does some benefit for the economy, fracking should be abolished as it causes health risks due to pollution, over consumes resources, and causes controversy over both human and animal habitats. Fracking causes pollution, and in this manner