Abstract The growing human population will definitely increase demand for food and fibre to feed an additional 2 billion people by 2050. Several gains that were made in the 1970s through the use of high yielding varieties and high-tech technologies are being reversed because there is evidence of soil degradation and destruction of natural resources especially in Africa and parts of Asia. The most notable challenges affecting agricultural productivity include; climate change, decline in soil and water quality, reduction of farmer participation in conservation practices and uneven policies that do not ensure sustainability. Sustainable agriculture means that it should cover all the five aspects of sustainability; biological productivity, economic
On the other hand, those people from rural area will move to the urban area to look for better paying job. However, only those investors or businesses profit while the labor’s wage does not increase due to the existence of surplus labor. Thus, the income gap between the rich/investors and the working class increases and escalates economic inequality. According to Kuznet’s hypothesis, in the long run, when a certain level of average income is reached and the process associated with industrialization such as democratization and development of welfare state, economic inequality decreases (Galbraith 2007). When this happens, the economic benefits will be experience by all social classes and income per capita will further
Introduction Agricultural revolution refers to a time where human beings started engaging in agriculture by cultivating the soil and domesticating animals and some plants this was between -8000 BC and 1700.It is believed that there was a slight increase in population during this period. This paper is going to discuss the possible factors that might have affected population growth rate during the agricultural revolution. Effect of agricultural revolution on population growth During the hunting and gathering period the population increased at a very slow rate, this was mainly because of high levels of mortality and lower levels of fertility; we can refer to this as a stationary population. The agricultural revolution had a huge impact on population
Greater emphasis on expenditure of food items in rural areas is seen to have diminished over the years. But it is still seen to persist though at a diminishing rate and will continue till agricultural operations and rural transportation are mechanized. We can expect a decrease in demand of food grains with the increase in urbanisation of rural areas. This will be associated with an increase in the welfare of rural areas in terms of better rural marketing strategies resulting in an increase in the rural real income and nutritional efficiency. Thus it is paradoxical that a decrease in the consumption of food grains is being associated with an increase in human welfare in rural areas.
The high demand for more farmland helps drive the need to cut down more trees, which in turn, contributes to deforestation. Tropical forests have the highest impact rate when it comes to deforestation due to agriculture. In the tropics, only the topsoil is highly fertile, so when the nutrient-rich soil is gone, people cut down more trees to find more fertile topsoil. Tropical forests lose thousands of acres daily due to agricultural use. One way people take out trees for agriculture us is a process called “slash and burn”.
They believed collectives would increase agricultural productivity in a large scale so they launched the Great Leap Forward, where a higher production target was aimed. The production increases, however, it didn’t meet the expectations. As a result grain outputs decrease and agricultural taxes are made immoderate, leading to poor harvest and then famine. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping (another CCP leader) then takeover Mao’s responsibility as a leader where they manage to reduce grain procurement and soon the economy gradually recover. Seeing the recovery, Mao returns and undergoes his job as a leader again where he gets rid of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
“Political Economy of Farm size and Productivity” Introduction: The farm size and productivity in the developing countries are used to analyze the agriculture structure. One critique levelled at literature on the productivity- farm size relationship is that the measure used and land productivity is inappropriate, that is people had a perception that big or large farms size holders had higher production than those who hold smaller farms. This perception started changing when Sen (1962, 1966) observed the inverse relationship between farm size and their output, that large farms are not that productive than the small farms. This relationship explained by the relative advantage of involving the family members as labours in the small farms that
This makes the analysis more complicated. Human capital inputs have been recognized as critical factors in achieving recent sustained growth in productivity in some African countries (Schultz, 2003). Farmers affected by malnutrition and ill health could experience lower productivity and income due to impaired work capacity in the field and reduced management and supervision abilities (Antle and Pingali, 1994). Farm work, particularly
The wood- based industry was the growing awareness that dwindling the natural forests. To mitigate or overcome the shortage of firewood the forest department launched a Social Forestry (SF) programme. Social Forestry is a practice of forestry to taking off the pressure from the natural forest and for meeting the felt needs of rural urban areas rather than to meet the commercial and industrial interest. Social forestry involves the people at all levels with raising forests as their own asset for their own use. The Social Forestry is concerned with the production of fast growing species such as Eucalyptus and plantations consequently sprang up.