Advances In Digital Radiography

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Diagnostic X-rays used in medical imaging have a large contribution of the population(1)exposure to ionising radiation, at least in developed countries, and it is the most significant source of radiation exposure after natural radon(2).
Radiological procedures such as plain films or digital equipments, make up 48% of all diagnostic radiology examinations and these are the reasons for 41% collective dose(3).
Progress in diagnostic imaging has contributed significantly to improving health care systems worldwide. One of these advances is digital radiography(4). In the past two decades, digital radiography has replaced film-screen radiography in many medical imaging centers. Today, manufacturers provide a diversity of digital imaging assortment
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Since the radiology image is very important for the radiologist’s diagnosis, this radiation can affect the quality of the image(7).
In the period of 1988–2008, the number of X-ray examinations has increased with 128% in the world(8).
It was observed that 80 % of patients referred to hospitals at least need a radiographic examination. Paediatric and infants constitute 10 % of the total number of X-ray examinations (9).
Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention(10) because of the higher radiation risks compared with adults(11).Therefore some of children tissues or organs are more radiosensitive compared with those of adult patients(12).
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) confirmed that the risk from exposure to ionising radiation is subordinate of the age at exposure(13, 14).
Thus, radiation exposure induring childhood is evaluated to have, for certain detrimental effects, an attributable lifetime risk three to four times greater when compared with exposures between the ages of 30 and 40 years and five to seven times greater when compared with exposures after the age of 50
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Thus, it is important that radiation doses for children radiology were kept as low as possible and reducing the paediatric dose as much as possible, according to ALARA principle(16).
Therefore, for avoiding high doses in the case of exposure from diagnostic and interventional medical procedures(17),the diagnostic reference level (DRL) was established, which was then incorporated by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)(18).
Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are a valuable and well-accepted instrument for optimisation the radiation protection for the patient during radiographic examinations(19).
DRLs are dose levels in medical imaging based on X-ray or, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for routine examinations, for groups of standard sized patients or standard phantoms and for broadly defined types of equipment. DRLs are criterion in order to the assessment of the medical examination performance and hereupon could continuously improve the imaging systems. The continuous improvement of the medical procedure can be accomplished via monitoring the DRL in a certain institution for a given medical device and afterward compared with other hospitals

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