This paper will critically examine the Cartesian dualist position and the notion that it can offer a plausible account of the mind and body. Proposed criticisms deal with both the logical and empirical conceivability of dualist assertions, their incompatibility with physical truths, and the reducibility of the position to absurdity. Cartesian Dualism, or substance dualism, is a metaphysical position which maintains that the mind and body consist in two separate and ontologically distinct substances. On this view, the mind is understood to be an essentially thinking substance with no spatial extension; whereas the body is a physical, non-thinking substance extended in space. Though they share no common properties, substance dualists maintain that the mind and body causally interact and influence one another.
Experience, philosopher thinks, describes only that what is directly belongs to consciousness. In other words, experience is saying nothing about relationships in an external world, but relates just to development of perceptions in our feeling, because, by his opinion, causes that generating perceptions are unknowable. Like this, Hume eradicated whole outer world out and linked experience with perceptions. Hume thinks that ‘’understanding’’ is based exactly on perceptions. By perception he called ‘’everything that can be presented by brain, do we use our sensory organs or exhibit our thought and reflection.’’ He divided perceptions into two kinds: impressions and ideas.
The difference portrayed between concepts achieved through reflection and concepts obtained by inference seems to be misleading whereas the groupings of understanding state experience and so facilitates the unity of consciousness which is necessary to all reflection. The purpose of the Ideas is to systematise experience in its entirety and the function of the classes is to provide possible the sense-perceptions essential aspect of its content. The former is unconditioned and it characterises a type of knowledge to which is not adequate to any actual experience. So the transcendental ideas are the concepts of pure reason which correspond to concepts of understanding categories. In a general sense, Kant uses the word 'Idea ' in Platonic usage.
One popular opposing argument of substance dualism is monism (opposite of substance dualism), which is the argument that mind and the body are one and the same thing (Jehle, 2006). Someone who believes in this, might argue a situation where an individual experiences damage to the brain. Specifically, when an individual’s brain experiences damage from either drug abuse, physical trauma, or pathological diseases, the individual’s brain mental capacities are always imperiled. Indeed, if the mind and body are separate, the mental capacities would not be imperiled (Jehle, 2006). This brings about the question about why should brain damage signify to the minds capacities if all individuals have a brain?
In the realm of Philosophy, different views about the definition of the mind and its interactions exist. Among the many, Dualism stands as one of the most debatable, thanks to its position about the relationship of the mind and body, and its repercussions. This assignment discusses the dualist relationship between the mind and the body, as well as its impact on the individual free will. It asserts Interventionism as an extension of Dualism, as well as an alternative to Determinism. The objective of this endeavor is to present the Dualist approach to Mind and Body as an alternative or possible solution to the dilemma of Determinism.
It is widely assumed that consciousness is a thing that is intractable to the human intellect. The difficulty comes in describing the “what it’s likeness” that characterizes consciousness. Whenever a person is in a particular conscious mental state there is something that is likely
In fact, it is prominent in the text that the writer’s stand supports that all knowledge comes from sensory experience, only ideas and minds exist and no material substance exists. Berkeley starts by introducing his own concept of ideas as any object of knowledge; for him ordinary objects are a collection of ideas. But what entails an idea for Berkeley is really diverse and ranges from emotions, passions, products of memory and products of imagination. Today’s common meaning of ideas includes only the last two constituents of the previous definition. Having introduced his own notion of ideas, and since Berkeley’s famous principle is esse is percipi which means “to be is to be perceived” the author now assumes that since ideas truly do exist, then there should be something that is able to perceive them.
Concepts generalise the content of intuitions. Real concepts, like quantity, existence, beauty, are present in all experience. He considered that mathematics and the sciences develop pseudo-concepts, mental fictions, which are not valid in reference to reality as a whole, but only in the special areas for which they are generated. Croce insisted that practical consciousness has to do with action. It is dependent upon the theoretical: we must know in order to act.
It is said, ‘There can be no knowledge without emotion. We may be aware of a truth, yet until we have felt its force, it is not ours. To the cognition of the brain must be added the experience of the soul.’ (Arnold Bennett, 1952) Emotion is defined as an instinctive feeling as distinguished from reasoning and knowledge. I agree to a large extent that emotions influence our acquisition of knowledge. As a way of knowing, emotion has both strengths and weaknesses, acting as both a reliable and unreliable source during thinker’s pursuit of knowledge.
In essence, Cartesian materialism claims that, somewhere in our brain, there is a Cartesian theater where a hypothetical observer could somehow "find" the content of conscious experience moment by moment. In contrast, anything occurring outside of this "privileged neural media" is non conscious. PHYSICALISM A form of materialism holding that physical entities are the only real existents and that mental phenomena like soul and consciousness are either illusory or reducible to physical phenomena. Physicalism is the proposition that all that exists does so within the limitations of the physical universe, and that there are no other kinds of things other than the physical and things derived from the physical realm whether they be forms of energy, motion, or thought. Everything in the world conforms to or is dependent on the physical realm.