The Pros And Cons Of Education

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Urbanization improves access to basic education for all. Expanding education systems in urban areas is easier and costs less than in rural areas. Thus Africa’s rapid urbanization is expected to increase enrolment, especially at primary level. Indeed, the nature of cities appears to provide incentives for investment in education by residents. Returns to education are generally higher in urban than rural areas—and so literacy rates and enrolment should be higher in urban than rural areas. There is a positive relationship between urbanization and education school enrolment at both primary and secondary level increases with urbanization. While enrolment in primary schools is less than 50% in regions with an urban population share less than 20%, it is more than 88% for regions with an urban population share between 50% and 90%. Enrolment in secondary school shows more profound effects. The average enrolment rate in areas with urbanization less than 20% is 12.2%. This rate is 55.2% for areas with an urbanization rate between 50% and 90%. Moreover, urbanization is closing the gender gap. The primary enrolment gap in areas where urbanization is between 30% and 40% is 11.9% higher for male than female students, while this gap is only 4.1% in favour of male students in areas where urbanization is between 50% and 90%. In secondary schools, the dividend is more pronounced. The secondary enrolment rate gap in areas where urbanization is between 30% and 40% is 5.2% higher for male than

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