It is a genetic disorder that is inherited from both parents who are carriers of the disease. It is characterized by anaemia with small and pale red blood cells (hypochromic microcytic anaemia) due to reduced production of one or more globin chains in the red blood cells. The consequences are ruptured of red blood cells in the spleen (Fucharoen, 1987; Weatherall, 1997). The clinical severity of thalassemia varies greatly depending on the number of genes affected (Cornelis, 2010). Approximately 7.0% of the world’s population is thalassaemia carrier and an estimated 300,000 babies are born each year with this disorder.
Diagnosis Many daughters go their whole life without knowing they have Triple x syndrome. Doctors take a blood sample and perform a chromosomal analysis (analyzing the chromosomes) on the blood sample. The diagnosis is being made before birth more often. Doctors also performs a amniocentesis which is sampling of amniotic fluid using a needle inserted into the uterus. A chorionic villus sampling is a tissue sample taken from the villi of the chorion (fetal part of the placenta).
Children born with thalassemia major are normal at birth, but develop severe anemia during the first year of life. Other symptoms can include: Bone deformities in the face, fatigue, growth failure, shortness of breath and yellow skin (jaundice).Severe thalassemia can cause early death (between ages 20 & 30 years)
According to the CDC, “approximately half of the babies less than one year old who get pertussis need treatment in the hospital” (Fast Facts). The pertussis vaccine, discovered in 1906 was developed by Bordet and Gengou. It is a common virus that is more well known for affecting babies. The virus also known as “Whooping Cough” for the sound the host makes while trying to catch their breath. A single person with, “pertussis can infect up to 12 to 15 other people” (Pertussis F.A.Q).
Rotational anomalies are one of the most frequent of embryonic malformations related to the digestive tract. The incidence of malrotation is ∼1:500 births and the symptomatic incidence is 1:6000 [1, 2]. Intestinal malrotation refers to incomplete midgut rotation and fixation in early fetal life and can consist of complete absence of rotation, incomplete rotation—less than 270—or inverse rotation. In most cases Malrotation can present with other congenital anomalies and It is typically diagnosed during the first year. We report a rare case of malrotation with LADD band presenting in an 11 year old girl accompanying intrinsic duodenal stenosis and annual stenosis.
In any of these situations, the antibodies will have developed as an immune response which can cause the baby to have anaemia and severe jaundice. With Rh incompatibility, this means whenever the woman is pregnant with an Rh positive baby in the future, antibodies will be produced in higher amounts. ABO incompatibility does not become more serious with each subsequent pregnancy. However ABO incompatibility can affect a baby until all the antibodies pass out of the baby’s system after they are born. What’s the treatment?
The most common method in chromosomal analysis is karyotyping analysis. Karyotyping analysis: Preparation and analysis of chromosomes from cultured amniotic fluid cells or cultured amniotic chorionic villi require at least 2 weeks. The procedure for the karyotyping analysis form aminocenetsis fluid will be take amniotic fluid cells and culture this with media and then harvested them and make slides and then karyotype these slides. The chromosome analysis after ultrasonography is associated with chromosome abnormalities, karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cells or fetal blood cells obtained by cordocenetsis may be performed after ultrasonographic detection of an abnormality. The mostly chromosome abnormalities have been found because of cystic hygroma, limb abnormalities, omphalocele, duodenal stenosis, hydrocephalus and malformations of the face.
In the 1990’s about 4 million people caught the chickenpox virus. About a 150 die each year from chickenpox. There are more than 3.5 million cases of chickenpox each year. Each year there are about 9,000 people put in the hospital from chickenpox. Each year about 100 people die.
Cardiovascular diseases are the worldwide health care issue representing 30% of mortalities. Heart valve diseases are life threatening affecting ~2.5% of the general population in economically developed countries (V.T. Nkomo et al. 2006). Approximately 100,000 heart valve replacements are performed each year in the U.S.
Acute Otitis Media Blaire, the 10-month-old patient, came into the doctor’s office with tugging of the ears. The doctor soon after diagnosed Blaire with bilateral acute otitis media. This disease primarily occurs in children between the ages of 6 months to 2 years.3 This is because the eustachian tube in children is in a different shape as compared to adults. The shape is shorter and more horizontal in children.4 This allows for an infection to stay in the tube for a much longer time. The infection occurs mostly after a viral infection has lowered the immune system and has inflamed and obstructed the eustachian tube.