Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 9 (20):533-544 ). We also define consciousness as an aspect of reality that manifests itself. To understand what exactly is consciousness we need to make first person and third person perspective. First person to make us know about what is getting into ones brain from surrounding through his senses and what thought process is involved to take up a decision by the mind. Third person to gather empirical data for describing the output of this thought process through his body to the surroundings.
For performance of a research, its methodology must be clear to the researchers. A clear methodology indicates the methods or techniques to be used as well as their relevance for the study. In choosing an appropriate methodology Guba& Lincoln (1994, pg. 105) argue, “Questions of method should be secondary to questions of paradigm”. The issue is one of choosing the most appropriate research method to achieve stated research objectives.
Are scientists skeptics, rationalists, or empiricists? It is true that skeptics question ideas, theories, hypothesis, results, and the likes and such - making them search for a valid answer or reason for a certain or particular argument. Rationalists and empiricists on the other hand, although contradictory, have their own qualities that make them relevant towards science. A scientist, to be one, should be a little bit of a skeptic, rationalist, and empiricist. Scientists will need a skeptic's critical thinking and scrutinization of formulated theories, ideas, conclusions, experiences and etc.
I will also raise an objection for one of these arguments, as presented in lecture. First, it is important to distinguish between the quality and the idea of the quality. Locke defines a quality to mean an attribute of an object, while the idea of a quality refers to our mental representation of this attribute. Thus, we only directly perceive our ideas of qualities rather than the qualities themselves and only indirectly perceive the actual qualities through our ideas (page 17). Locke goes as far as to differentiate between types of qualities with what he calls primary qualities and secondary qualities.
Positivists view the world from a scientific point of view was seen as the way to get at truth through prediction and controlling it. The world was thought to operate by laws of cause and affect that we could discern if researchers used unique approach. They emphasised the use deductive reasoning to postulate theories that can be tested.
According to Weaver and Olson (2006), paradigm is defined as the patterns of beliefs which regulate inquiry within a discipline while Taylor, Kermode and Roberts (2007) stated that a paradigm is a broad view or perspective of something. A paradigm consists of three fundamentals including the belief about the nature of knowledge, a methodology and the criteria for validity (Mac Naughton, Rolfe and Siraj-Blatchford, 2001). Overall, the function of paradigm is to express an idea and act as a tool to conduct normal science which allows it to be applied by
A history book is written by one person so it might hold one opinion. Moreover, history might had been written for a past incident that cannot be utilized for a current one. Still, a person who wants to know and explore things correctly must be a critical thinker. And as an IB critical thinker, it means a lot to read different points of views, analyze and interpret them with an open-mind, and then using my critical thinking to implement good ideas in daily life appropriately. Therefore, I truly believe that history is important and does create our identity thus the meaning and purpose of our
Introduction Attribution Theory has played a big part in social-psychological research. Unfortunately, the term attribution is confusing. According to one meaning, forming an attribution is making a dispositional/ personality inference from behavior; according to another meaning, forming an attribution is giving an explanation. The focus of this paper is on the comparison of Kelley’s covariation theory and Jones and Davis correspondent inference theory. Approaching from a perspective almost the same as that of Jones and Davis.
This provided us with more opportunities, but most importantly the opportunity to change our study so it would become an investigation of the topic. Thereby the social reality was not necessarily fixed, and we could investigate the topic and the conflicts of interest differently. Using interpretivism we were able to understand the human behavior instead of just making an explanation of it. By not having settled the reality behind the conflict of interest, we were also able to investigate the existence of human behavior and to what extent. When changing our epistemological approach, it also enabled us to change our research strategy and approach to the research, as well as the types of data used in our project
Ellingson and Ellis (2008) see auto-ethnography as a social constructionist project that rejects binary opposition between the researcher and the researched, objectivity and subjectivity, process and outcome, self and others, and the personal and the political. Carolyn Ell is writes, “In auto-ethnographic work, I look at validity in terms of what happens to readers as well as to research participants and researchers”. Ellis suggests to judge auto-ethnographic writings on the usefulness of the story. In other words, the most important is what narratives do, what consequences they have. Narrative in his perspective is the way we remember the past and disclose to others the truth of our