Introduction Views of ethnicity and ethnic boundaries in the sociological literature can be broadly divided into two categories. On the one hand, scholars like Weber ( 1968) focus on the essential characteristics of ethnicity and a set of subjective “beliefs,” collective understandings of a common ancestry and shared culture (385, 389). On the other hand, another category of ethnic boundaries derive from the work of social anthropologists such as Fredrik Barth (1969) who theorizes that ethnic divisions are about maintaining boundaries irrespective of cultural differences. The variability in the affirmation of ethnic identity may be dependent upon social settings or situations and relevant to an actor’s perception of that situation. In this sense, ethnic identity is “situational” that “is premised on the observation that particular contexts may determine which of a person’s identities or loyalties are appropriate at a point in time.” (Paden 1967, 268) Thus, a question arises about which ethnic group an individual identifies with and then how strongly he/she identifies with that group in different contexts.
The political elites change government and social interactions as well as influence a “long-term realignment” (Hopkins and Sides 2015, 70). Republican and Democratic opinions are split in regards to how much government interaction should be present in welfare, Obamacare, and tax cuts. More competition also leads to greater stakes in times of political controversy because a small advantage could lead to a majority in the Senate or the House. Contemporary politics utilize competition to gain more political power. A graph illustrates how competition affects the Democratic and Republican parties.
Interactions amid the provinces and the federal government, from constitutional issues to the most irresistible topics bang up-to-date in the country, are indemnified beneath the umbrella of “Federalism”. Authorities are shared so that on some matters, the state governments are decision-holders, whereas on the other matters, national government grasps the autonomy. In last twenty-five years, the upsurge of federal fiats on both governments, local and state, has shifted the power amongst state and national governments. Now, the national government is beginning to have more governance over the state’s engagements. Under the British unitary system, U.S was a string of colonies.
The disadvantage of direct democracy is the complexity of its application in large areas (the complexity of the formation of issues, the increase in the timing for the coordination of issues and voting) without the use of computer technology and mobile communications. 2. The ratio of direct democracy and representative Immediate democracy is distinguished from representative democracy, where the exercise of legislative and control functions is carried out through representative bodies and special institutions elected by the people. The main features of representative democracy are the transfer of certain functions (full or partial) of lawmaking and control by citizens - representative bodies. Unlike direct democracy, this allows for the most rapid resolution of global strategic issues of a general nature.
Introduction Democracy is the symbol of fairness which should reduce inequality, because in democracies one has elections. During these elections, voters can simply support the politicians who stand for redistribution when the level of inequality is too high. However, much research showed that during the past two generations, the economic inequality is still rising rapidly in the United States and many other countries which also have advanced democracies, following the increase of democracy. (Bonica, McCarty, Poole, & Rosenthal, 2013) In Adam’s article, there are five reasons that lead to the increase of inequality. First, Ideological Shift and Greater Polarization on both Republicans and Democrats.
Taxing was apportioned due to the size of each state; bigger states would rebel because they were paying much more taxes than a smaller state (doc. 5). The representatives from smaller states would try and enforce taxes so the larger states would have to pay much, much more; the smaller states wouldn 't have to pay much at all. Shays Rebellion was also an outcome that the inability to tax led to; farmers and workers were getting too high of a tax, so they rebelled, later causing the government to rethink its
A nation state is a group of people who share common bonds and live within a geographical territory under a system of government (S4 Integrated Humanities, 2016). The government of a nation state should provide for its people in the best possible way. Diversity refers to recognizing that each individual is unique, with their own differences, be it their race, ethnicity, religious beliefs or ideologies. When there is diversity in a nation state, there is bound to be disagreements, since different groups of people will have different opinions with others, which may escalate into conflict. A multiculturalist perspective should be attained by a nation in order to deal with cultural and ethnic diversity.
First, colonial and interstate conflicts were a trend on the Cold War period, but now the predominating conflicts are internal to a state, even though sometimes there are external states involved. Secondly, there was a distinct rise of civil conflicts, peaking in 1991 there was 52 conflicts, then the number declined to 32 conflicts in 2003. Since then, armed conflicts has been increasing and decreasing between 30 and 40. Constructivism views international relations as a social construction. By that, constructivists see states as social actors and analyze it through the theories’ basic elements, such as identities, ideas, norms, societies, etc.
An Overview on Federalism Through the PH Debate Context The problem with concepts in political science like federalism is it’s taken for granted. When advocates and critics debate the pros and cons of federalism in the country, it seems as if it’s a straightforward issue and idea, devoid of nuances. Indeed, the need for clarification and understanding of the concept is important to raise the level of its discussion in our society. Paleker provided a conceptual analysis of federalism by delineating and integrating three theories seeking to explain it (309). The first theory called classical theory explains a legalistic point of view.
He sees elite competition as an important force in shaping historical outcomes: 'Elites seeing to mobilize the ethnic group against its rivals or against the centralizing state strive to promote a congruence of a multiplicity of the group 's symbols... Elites seeking to challenge the authenticity of an ethnic group 's claim for individuality will do the opposite…..’ This further implies that 'the process of ethnic identity formation and its transformation into nationalism is reversible. ' (Manor 1996) He accepts the insights in the well-known book The “invention of tradition,” but he adds that when ethnic consciousness is