Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are very different, although they all reflect each other in one way or another. Stereotyping is when individuals categorize people they observe by gender, age, ethnicity, religion and other social groupings; this is also called using cognitive schemas formed from preconceived expectations. So many negative labels have created a bias against stereotyping, but people forget that stereotyping is just a categorization. We use this to gather information about certain subjects. People differentiate male from female in such categories as traits, behaviors, physical characteristics, and occupations.
In general, persons with low self-esteem are motivated more by self-maintenance than by self-enhancement (Covington & Beery, 1976). Self-awareness theory is motivation to change arises from one 's awareness of an incongruity between one 's idealized self-concept and one 's self-image. The individual 's evaluation of self as less than desirable motivates him or her to improve his/her behavior in order to maintain self-esteem. At first glance, "self-awareness theory" appears to be a cognitive consistency theory; but in fact the self-esteem motive, activated by a negative self-evaluation, is offered as the major impetus for change (Hull & Levy, 1979). Duval & Wicklund emphasize self-focused attention as the initial step
Cultural relativism asserts the fact that each culture has its own type of coherent understanding (Heintz 2009 : 5.) In other words, a culture must be judged in context of its history, origin as well as the people who follow it. There are many examples that exist in various cultures where practices can be often viewed as primitive and often
The society is a huge influence for stigmatisation and labelling. The social response attached to the individual will cause a change of attitude or behaviour towards another individual and a person’s self-concept. In the society, those that ranked lower in social standing, practices certain culture, race or with stigmatising conditions tend to be stereotyped, faces prejudices and labelling (Hall et al.,
This helps us to make choices and provide platforms which help us focus on particular issues, have solidarity with others who shares our identity. In this manner, social identities can be thought of as pre-existing basic life plans. Individuality consists in accepting or resisting those identities that are thrust upon one, choosing others and then modifying them to suit one’s particular life style. On view of autonomy few individuals actually are autonomous, as few are sufficiently rational and deliberate. Appiah rejects this autonomy since it requires a level of critical self-thinking.
However, not everyone may have access to equal opportunities because of brokered access or discrimination on the basis of class, gender, race, sexuality etc. that is prevalent in most societies (Broidy & Agnew,1997). This leads to an unequal distribution of means among people belonging to the same society and having similar aspirations. This lack of accessibility to available means encourages deviant behaviour among people to attain their cultural goals. Such people then resort to deviant activities that violate social norms such as theft and embezzlement, to fulfill their economic goals and cultural ambitions.
Ethnocentrism is one of the leading causes of divisions amongst members of different ethnicities, races and religious groups in society. The word “Ethnocentrism” originates from the Greek word “ethnos” meaning “nation” or “people” and the English word “centre”. The term was coined by William Graham Sumner, a social evolutionist and professor, who defined it as the viewpoint that “one’s own group is the centre of everything”, against which all other groups are judged . Although ethnic distinctions and divisions are only to provide a unique identity, it has led to racism and prejudice among people. While most of us may recognize these problems, we may not realise that ethnocentrism occurs everywhere and everyday.
First amongst them is the intrusive threat which encapsulates areas deemed to be stressful, sacred and private (Lee, 1993: 4) A pragmatic example in this case may be interviewing a slum dweller who has lost a child as a result of military invasion into the slum. Furthermore, there is the social threat which is common with researches slanted towards social deviance. These have the potential of engendering stigmatization and inculpation (Lee, 1993: 4). In addition, there is the political threat which is present where there is social conflict and powerful persons and bodies in the society. Buttressing this, conflicted research environments may generate fears that an intended research may work to the advantage of the other faction (Record, 1967) or disconcert efforts to resolve conflict.
Diversity can lead to discrimination when people, especially the majority group, adopt a generalised attitude and prejudgment towards minority groups, and view themselves as superior. When this prejudice is acted upon, minorities face oppression and discrimination – apart from limiting the opportunities available to them, this is also severely disadvantageous in day-to-day life. In turn, intergroup relations will become strained, which will ultimately cause segregation. An example of mainly violent conflict due to diversity in a nation-state is the unrest in Sri Lanka caused by tension between different ethnic groups, namely the Sinhalese and the Tamils. The Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils currently make up 74.9% and 11.2% of the population respectively, and even right now, inequality between these two groups is still a severe