1.1 Explain why particular individuals and groups may be vulnerable to abuse and/or harm to self and other
For most people, only the person involved in the encounter are labeled as victims. The pain comes in from the view of one who feels the full effects of the ordeal. However, there is more to the scope of victims than the person directly involved in the crime. Debra narrates how much her family participates in events following up her kidnap and her husband’s murder. Family members would like to see the perpetrator get the death penalty. This is not because they would like to support a family member, but because they feel an extent of pain from Debra's
Sutherland’s theory of Differential Association takes a macro level analysis as to why people commit crimes and brings it to a micro level analysis. He concludes that looking at a multiple factor approach did not explain why crimes are committed. Instead he asks the question what one singular factor touches on these multilevel factors. Sutherland looked for the universal explanation as to why crimes are committed rather than looking at individual reasons. His theory seeks what has always been present in crime and what has not or better yet what mechanism or experiences correlate to the crimes committed. Sutherland proceeded to look at a singular force that made people commit crimes. Whether it’s their group, society or history and how this
The first point of criticism against victim participation in restorative justice processes arises from scepticism about an apology to the victim as a way of dealing with criminal matters. The perception sometimes exists as to it simply being a way to get away with the crime.106 Members of the public should thus be educated to understand that restorative justice is more than a mere saying sorry, but in the context of victim offender mediation or family group conferences it rather affords the victim the opportunity to confront the child offender with the real and human cost of his or her criminal actions. Another concern deals with the possible secondary victimisation of the victim in the case where the offender pretends
According to the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network, another person endures sexual assault every 98 seconds. This information may have been shocking ten years ago, but for many, this news is a basic fact of life. Sexual assault cases have continued to become more and more common as time goes on. What is causing this surge in unwanted physical contact? The cause of sexual assault is one hundred percent of the time, the assaulter’s fault. Sexual assault is never caused by a “rape culture” or the clothing that one chooses to wear. Sexual assault is caused by the attacker, never the victim. Sexual assault is an issue very prevalent in our society today and is starting to get recognized because of the bravery of these victims. Cases like the Larry Nassar case, the Harvey Weinstein case, and the Brock Turner case are just some examples of sexual assault that our society is fighting today.
Victimization can occur directly and indirectly to an individual. The book, Transcending is full of stories of people who have been directly and indirectly victimized. Janet Bakke’s story is an example of direct victimization. Janet was the target of abuse. As a child her biological father mentally and physically abused Janet. Her stepfather sexual abused her until she left home at the age of 19. Her husband also abused her physically and sexually. Barbara Ayres’ story of her daughters is an example of indirect victimization. Barbra herself was not the victim of the crime but she has to deal with the aftermath of the incident. Her daughters were murdered. Barbara and her family deal with similar symptoms as those who were directly victimized. Barbra has to deal with the stress of loosing her daughters and the process of the cases.
“...We often take responsibility in a way that goes beyond what we can reasonably be held responsible for”(Sherman 154), says Nancy Sherman in “The Moral Logic of Survivor Guilt.” Sherman believes that people blame themselves too much when something goes wrong in a dangerous situation; and even when something happens that is out of their control, they cannot forgive themselves for the outcome of the event. Should people in life-or-death situations be held accountable for their actions? Someone might argue that people should take responsibility for what they do, even in survival mode. However, in life-or-death situations, people should not accuse other, and make them feel remorse for their actions, because, in survival mode, a person wants to save themselves before anyone else.
Physical Facilitators are things that augment offender’s capabilities or help to overcome prevention measures. Trucks extend offender’s capacity to move stolen goods, telephones allow people to make obscene phone calls, and firearms help overcome resistance to robberies. Some physical facilitators are tools, but others are part of the physical environment. Felson and his colleagues had described how the old layout of the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York facilitated a variety of crimes. Types of crimes had specific ecological niches created by the variety of design features in the old station. Physical facilitators help offenders overcome preventive measures that increase risk or effort. They can
Abstract In 1982, President Ronald Reagan created the President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime in order to address the needs of millions of Americans and their families who were victims of crime every year. The task force goal was to review the policies and programs that affected crime victims and then advise the president along with the Attorney General of any actions that was needed in order to improve efforts in assisting and protecting victims. The findings showed a lack of compensation and services for crime victims including a large imbalance between a defendant’s rights and those of the victim. As a result, the task force made many recommendations to both the President and Attorney General (U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Courts
Identity theft is a crime in which a criminal obtains someone else’s personal protective information in order to commit fraud, deception or economic gain. In most cases an individual illegally obtains a person’s social security number and other identifiable data in order to make purchases and in severe cases completely taking on someone’s identity typically without that person knowing. Identity theft use to occur in the 1990s without the perpetrators getting into any trouble due to it not being a federal offense until 1998 when Congress made it a federal offense (Identity Theft, 2015). This paper will explain why it is important to safeguard one’s personal protective information and the issues someone can encounter if they are faced with identity theft.
A common theme among restorative justice (RJ) practices, as a whole, is to hold offenders accountable and empower victims. The sentencing circle, also known as the peacemaking circle, is a community-based practice with the primary goal of determining a suitable punishment that meets the needs of all parties associated with the offense. There are, however, other RJ practices, specifically ones used in cases of intimate family or domestic violence, that are in contract to the sentencing circle. For example, victim-survivor panels are a common RJ practice for victims of domestic or sexual violence. Victims do not face their abuser but rather the attendees are individuals, typically men, responsible for committing similar offenses as those described
Start counting to the number nine……… In that time a woman was assaulted or beaten in the United States alone according to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. That means every minute approximately seven people are a victim of abuse, every hour 402 people, and every day 9,648. These numbers are astonishing and bring to light the tangibility of this issue. Domestic violence exists, it is a serious and an important issue I believe should be brought to the table of conversation. Domestic violence can rip family’s apart, cause people to loose trust in one another, as well as bring victims to their lowest points of self-worth. The abuse can be issued from multiple persons in the family: father to child, mother to child, teenage child
"While the Internet-based economy provides many benefits, it also raises new concerns for maintaining the privacy of information. â€œInternet privacy is the privacy and security level of personal data published via the Internet. It is a broad term that refers to a variety of factors, techniques and technologies used to protect sensitive and private data, communications, and preferences.â€
A few reasons a person may not report a rape includes: denial, fear of the legal system, fear of retaliation, guilt and blame, personal matters and victim-offender relationship. Due to denial, victims do not report rape because they may not be sure if it was rape. In order for a victim to come to the decision of reporting rape he or she needs to realize it was rape. Some victims do not realize it was rape due to the issue of less violence (Burgess et al., pg.376). The victims who report their rapes are the ones who acknowledge it was rape and the rape that occurred was more violent (Burgess et al., pg.376). In other words, the rapes that included more violence included acts such as being held down, slapped around and seriously injured while on the other hand less violent rapes may include verbal abuse so victims may not acknowledge this is still rape even if they were not seriously injured (Burgess et al., pg.376).
For many decades, the victim was the forgotten party in the criminal justice system as the main focus was that the perpetrator of a crime should be punished. But the victims of crimes stand poised equally in the scales of justice as the victim is not a passive object but an active component of the whole judicial process. The victim deserves similar level of protection and attention from the court like that of an accused i.e. a victim 's interests need to be balanced vis-à-vis that of accused. Victims of crime go through mental and physical trauma and suffer throughout their lives , as there place in the society changes. A victim is certainly entitled to reparation, restitution and safeguards of his rights and criminal justice would look hollow if justice is not done to the victim of the crime. In recent years, the Legislature and the judiciary have taken gradual steps to develop the necessary principles by which appropriate compensation could be paid to the victims of crimes. The gradual shift in the approach of the Supreme Court is a positive sign but other organs i.e. the government and the legislature have to make conscious efforts to consider the rights of the victims.