Free states got an advantage as well when it was enforced that slaves would also be counted as three-fifths of a person for tax purposes. This has infamously become known as the 3/5 compromise. However, the issue of slavery was never solved in the Great Compromise. Free states knew that the Southern states wouldn’t accept the Constitution if it took away their rights to own slaves. Because of this, the only ruling in the Constitution that dealt with slavery was the Fugitive Clause which enforced Free states to help recapture runaway slaves who had escaped their masters' states.
Edmund Morgan, the author of Slavery and Freedom, wrote about the American contradiction. The fact that Thomas Jefferson, and other political leaders of the American Revolution, said “all men are created equal,” yet owned slaves themselves. “How did England, who prided themselves on liberty of their citizens, produce colonies who controlled lives that were not their own?” Morgan questioned and argued how they created such an effort to keep human liberty and respect intact, while at the same time continue with the labor of slaves, stripping them of their own liberty and self-worth every day. How could all men be equal when a large portion of the population were not having the same equal rights and were owned? Edmund Morgan explains that when Thomas Jefferson writes this famous
For example, had the government continued to fund the Freedmen’s Bureau, then the South would have legislated their discriminatory laws much later, if not at all. If the Freedmen’s Bureau had continued, African Americans and poor whites would have continued to receive support from the government as well as from other volunteers, such as carpetbaggers and scalawags. Over time, Southerners would begin to realize that former slaves were becoming equals to them, and slowly begin to accept it, especially since blacks would have the resources and people to enforce this idea. This would lead to America being the just and equal society citizens had wanted since the
Reconstruction - the federal government plan to solve the issues formed from the end of the Civil War – can be divided into 2 parts: physically rebuilding the South and reconstructing the Southern Society. The goal of the reconstruction politically was to integrate Southern states/rebel states back into the U.S., and socially was to integrate the freed slave population to the society. However, ex-confederates of the South resisted this because of the fear of complete turnover of their lives, and to maintain the social hierarchy, where African Americans remained at the bottom by default due to their race. Several organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan were formed to resist reconstruction and preserve white supremacy. Congress responded to the resistance by establishing the Freedmen 's Bureau, whose aimed was to build public schools and universities, provide food and medical care, political equality between blacks and whites and equal access to the judicial system.
There existed reasons other than slavery on behalf of the South 's breakaway. The demonstrations of division in America coexisted many: utopian societies, clashes over public space, backlash alongside immigrants, urban rebellions, black demonstration, and Indian oppositions. America was a separated land in need of change with the South in the biggest demand. The South trusted heavily on agriculture, equally opposed to the North, which was vastly populated and an industrialized union. The South produced cotton, which remained its main cash crop and countless Southerners knew that hefty reliance on slave labor would damage the South ultimately, but their forewarnings were not regarded.
They petitioned Congress to end the slave trade and state legislatures to abolish slavery. They repeatedly pointed out the disagreement between American ideals of liberty and equality and the base reality of slavery. President Thomas Jefferson recognized that the Virginian slaves had been motivated by the same ideals that had inspired white colonists to revolt against Britain. Jefferson told the minister to assure the British that the rebel slaves were not criminals, but men aspiring for freedom. The negotiations with the British were unsuccessful, and most of the accused conspirators were sold as slaves to Spain and Portugal 's New World colonies.
Vigilante Groups, who took the law into their own hands, however, were harder to clamp down on because they were unorganized. The White League and White Brotherhood carried on the mission of the KKK and united members of all classes of Southern society to fight against a supposed Republican system of “reverse racism” that favored blacks over whites. These groups eventually became a militant wing of the Democratic Party and intended to redeem the south by forbidding the black majority from
The Slaves are free in the North, so avenge those who lost their lives and free the slaves in the South (Dudley 167). Clement L. Vallandigham was a representative of Ohio. He was a Democrat and disagreed with many of President Lincoln’s thoughts (Dudley 167). Mr. Vallandigham stated, “You cannot abolish slavery by the sword” (Dudley 169). He thinks that slaves can not be freed by fighting.
This idea is shown through laws against African Americans and the unfair way they were treated. Although the war gave many slaves their freedom, still many slaves faced many obstacles and injustices. For instance white southerners established their own authority and created black codes. These codes restricted black men from finding jobs which made it nearly impossible to provide for themselves or their family. Many states also required
In the United States, the racial status of African-Americans post-slavery was not just about to mark them as full, equal people under the same rights as whites. Even so, after the Civil War, which purpose was to free the slaves and reunite the Union, it did not guarantee the so-called “freedom” and “equality” between blacks and whites. Ironically, after the war, an extreme example of blacks’ hopes and dreams being crushed is when conservative, white ex-slaveholders took control of local politics in the South after the Civil War, thus making life even harder for the former slaves who thought that they would be truly free; but it turned out to be the complete opposite. With unfair Jim Crow laws and many other vengeful threats, including the racist
When reconstruction ended, we all could say we were united under one nation. This ensured that blacks would always be free from going back to the life of a slave; although, many people were so against reconstruction it caused a lot of hate in the south towards the blacks. The black people were given rights that were much like the rights that white people had. The southern states had new constitutions and recognized the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments’ after reconstruction ended in 1877. Education was provided to the blacks, not just the whites.
Even though slavery was abolished after the civil war, many Southerners were still against the idea of equal rights for all black people, such as the Republicans. However, many northerners, like Abraham Lincoln, tried to look for ways to help increase the guarantees of equal rights of the African Americans, like passing down laws and acts that is beneficial to the African Americans. President Lincoln, who was
The Reconstruction of the South, after the Civil War, could be viewed as a success or an utterly failure. The war itself was a major success, with slavery coming to an end. The freeing of the slaves was the high point before the South turned down the dark and winding road of Reconstruction. When Reconstruction started under President Johnson in 1865, it was not very popular with the Northern politicians. The Southern legislation had come up with different challenges to keep a strong hold on the African Americans that were still in the South.
The president encouraged congress to provide financial aid to any slave states willing to adopt plans of The Emancipation, and also funds to the people in the colonies of the African descent with their consent. The Emancipation Proclamation did not include the areas that had already been conquered by Union Armies. The North benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation in several ways. The slaves from the south fled to the north to become free but that put a hurting on the south economy. The proclamation also gave renewed purpose to Union Soldiers, who now saw their cause as abolition as well as the preservation of the union.
Once African Americans were sent off with their freedom, former slaves were left on their own with little more then what they were allowed to take. Due to the racist attitudes that were rampant in the South, it was nearly impossible to find anything but low paying, unskilled jobs for anyone who wasn’t white. Because blacks needed work and plantation owners had vacant land an arrangement was placed in order to meet a questionably mutual benefit, sharecropping. Sharecropping was an agreement between former slave and former slave owners; that in exchange for a share of land and shelter, at a very high rate of interest, the landowner would receive a portion of the harvest made by his land. Although this was a system that functioned for a short time when it was most needed, the high interest rates thrown to the former slaves that suffered from them made the debt nearly impossible to repay, yet again leaving the African Americans under control of the white race.