This error results in incorrect amounts of chromosomes and abnormal structures. Chromosome instability has been seen as a major cause of the majority of cancerous tumors but it has not been proven whether or not it is considered an early step or a final demonstration of the progression of cancer. The equal segregation of chromosomes during the process of mitosis is a major factor in the upkeep for maintenance in genomic stability. If it does not happen successfully it can lead to cell death known as apoptosis or malignant transformation. This segregation during cell division is monitored by several
Meiosis, on the other hand, is used for just one purpose in the human body: the production of gametes—sex cells, or sperm and eggs. It makes daughter cells with exactly half as many chromosomes. Meiosis in humans is a division process that makes a diploid cell (one with two sets of chromosomes) to haploid cells (ones with a single set of chromosomes). PHASES OF MEIOSIS In meiosis, the cell needs to separate sister chromatids. But it must also separate homologous chromosomes, the similar but non-identical chromosome pairs an organism receives from its two parents.
During the first years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster, and after becoming an adult, cells divide to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair damages. Cancer begins when cells start uncontrolled growth. Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Despite of dying, cancer cells grow and form new cells. Cancer cells can also invade tissues, while normal cells cannot.
In terms of mammalian trans genesis, electroporation is an effective method of introducing exogenous DNA into embryonic stem (ES) cells. This technique has recently, been used to transfer genes into cultured mammalian embryos at defined stages of development. It was reported that there is an increase from 12 to 19% of transgenic bovine blastocysts when electroporation was included in an otherwise passive sperm-DNA uptake protocol. Similar findings were reported, again with transgenic bovine blastocysts. Fish species were also reported to be genetically manipulated in
Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with the other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concern itself with understanding the interaction between the various system of the cell ,including the interactions between types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interaction are regulated. The study of physical, chemical and biological macromolecules is termed as Molecular Biology. Max Pertuz is known as the father of molecular biology.
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some sort of genetic material, which is DNA. Prokaryotic cells have circular DNA, while eukaryotic cells have more linear DNA. DNA is a compound molecule that contains the genetic material of a cell and the information on how to make proteins. It controls the function and structure of a cell. All cells also contain organelles.
Gaps where primer was are then filled by yet more complementary nucleotides. 9. To make sure there is no mistake in new DNA molecule the new strand is proofread. 10. Finally, enzyme called DNA ligase seal up the sequence of DNA into two continuous double strands.
As older cells are frequently used to make clones, it is possible that their age could be received by the developing embryos, which can at that point result in early aging issues and, possibly, even death. In addition, cloned organisms may create new diseases that don’t currently exist. This would be disastrous for humans and especially clones because some diseases are contagious, and if they are spread, it may take a big chunk of our population away. It would also take time for doctors to create a cure for upcoming diseases. Cloning many organisms may result in loss of diversity in genes.
The polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory process in which a specific sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is amplified producing many copies of the specific DNA sequence. However, their must be components such as (DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTP’s), buffer solution, and magnesium chloride salt solution) are required to carry out the process which undergoes through three major stages to make the copies of DNA segment. First stage is denaturation, after that annealing, then extension. However, this can be done if and only if the 3’ and 5’ ends are known, this helps in initiating DNA synthesis in which it is ensured that two short oligonucleotides acts as primer will anneal onto DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction process is used as a diagnostic and research tool due to the fact that it can be done within a few hours which makes it a rapid assay.
Conclusion We discussed few grand area of research in mining biological data. Bioinformatics is the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied to gene-based drug discovery and development. The next level bio-informatics is re-encoding DNA sequences by Gene editing (or genome editing) is the insertion, deletion or replacement of DNA at a specific site in the genome of an organism or cell. It is achieved using engineered nucleases also known as molecular scissors.