Rather than just breeding the two organisms together with the desirable traits to reinforce the genes that are already there, the organisms have to be genetically engineered. The largest part of the whole idea of genetically engineered organisms is how the genes are added into the new plants. There are six steps to the process of genetically engineering organisms. The first of which is the isolation of the specific gene that they would like to extract and use in the creation of another organism. Scientists have to study the genetic makeup of the organism and isolate the specific gene that has the desired genetic characteristic, this process is also called mapping.
CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.” It can quickly twist most of the genes in any plant or animal. CRISPR and many other tools are being used in many ways, such as changing the base of nucleotide. Also, scientists called this technology “genetic cut-and-paste technology” so that it turn genes on and off. Therefore, Genetic engineering have both advantages and consequences. People in nowadays are still arguing about the technology of Genetic engineering, but is Genetic engineering really a good thing?
According to Wikipedia, Transgenic organisms can be defined as, “an organism that has been genetically altered by adding genes into, and out of, the organism to achieve the desired outcome, this process is called genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is made possible through certain techniques within biotechnology and bioengineering”. More and more organisms, including plants and animals, are being modified today. These processes are justified based on their supposed “endless benefits”, but at what cost? This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals.
Human cloning is ethically wrong; there are many risks involved, which will lead to detrimental effects on human society. Before going into my points, I would like to talk about what cloning is. According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, cloning is “a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.” (Green, genome.gov). There are three types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is the production of copies of genes and DNA.
Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure.Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends.The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species.
Natural cloning also occurs in mammals, including humans. Twins are produced, when a fertilised egg splits. This split creates multiple embryos with almost the same genetic information. (Information gathered from this year’s Biology textbook) Artificial Cloning: There are three types of artificial cloning, namely gene, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Gene: this is when a desire gene is located and cloned from DNA extracted from the organism that contains the desired gene.
Nowadays, biotechnology can be found virtually everywhere around us such as in our foods, drinks, clothes, medicine, plant, animals and many other things that we used and sometimes we doesn’t realize that it is the product from the biotechnology. What is biotechnology? Biotechnology can be defined by the words itself: bios that give the meaning of life, while technology means technique or process or scientific investigation used in the production of product or services to solve the problem. So, biotechnology means the use of technology and living organism for human benefits to solve the problem. Earlier, biotechnology is applied domestically in animals, plants crops, and also use of the microorganism to make bread, yogurt and cheese in order
Gene therapy is now considered a new therapeutic area of study in modern medicine. Genes are special segments of DNA that provide the information to the body to properly function. It involves the transfer of genetic information into the tissues and organs of patients. As a result, it can be used to eliminate diseased genes or restore their normal functions. Another application of gene therapy involves the inclusion of different function to the cells, in order to either fight cancer or other diseases.
Genetic engineering is manually changing the genetic structure of cells by adding a new DNA which has one or more new traits that aren’t existent in the particular organism. The aim of the genetic engineering would be to improve organisms. An example of a genetically engineered organism would be plants that can handle herbicides or crops with higher or lower oil content. Genetic engineering works by removing a gene from an organism and inserting it into another organism, making it capable to express the trait given from the gene. One specific gene is located and copied from thousands of genes, this is called gene cloning.
THE SEQUENCING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE WHOLE GENOME OF AN ORGANSIMISM The sequencing and assembling of the whole genome is designed to help people understand and visualize how long a strand of DNA can be constructed from smaller overlapping DNA sequence. The genome sequencing is a very important aspect in molecular genetics because it help and gives us an understanding on how a genome completely works, How genes combine together and direct growth, development and maintain the whole body of an organism. The body of an organism is so complex and more complicated but it helps to study the gene expression of a specific tissue or organs and most importantly to study the human variation, how humans are closely related to other organisms. There are