But when it comes to us evolving, many scientists believe that we have stopped. They claim we are close to the end of human evolution because of all the genetic engineering and medicinal use, that is causing us now not to evolve naturally by natural selection, and survival of the fittest but by our own means. But at the same time, with all the evidence that scientists like Elisabeth Bolund of Uppsala University in Sweden show, one could argue that we are still evolving. This evidence being that between 4 and 18 percent of the variations among individuals in lifespan, family size and ages of the first and the last childbirth are influenced by genes. This means that if genes were to affect the differences in all of these traits, they could also react to changes in natural selection.
The inclusion of the bumble bee on the endangered list was enough to put many advocates in a full-blown conservation frenzy. However, without understanding the benefits and resources brought upon by the rusty-patched bee may leave the desire to ‘Save the Bees’ seem somewhat void of reason and almost not critical. Rusty-patched bumble bees specifically play a role in the pollination of various plants, foods, and other agricultural resources. Once upon a time, the bumblebees spanned a wide range across the northwest, northern, and northeast states, however, due to an increase in human impact, the bees are experiencing an alarming decline as sharp as 87 percent in the last 20 years, as noted by the USFWS. Some of the reasons for decline can include habitat loss, intensive farming, disease, insecticide use, and climate change.
The Universal Vaccine Controversy Vaccines have become a major part of our world today. A large number of diseases have been prevented from large, deadly outbreaks. Although vaccines usually seem to be projected as having a positive effect, many people refuse to receive vaccinations. These people believe the side effects of vaccines could be potentially worse and cause more damage than the risk of getting the disease itself. Because vaccines are highly controversial, it is important to understand how they work and to then weigh the benefits versus the risks.
Certain chemicals can be harmful to animals and helpful to humans and vice versa. Humans and animals have anatomic, metabolic, and cellular differences that effect the success rate of animal testing. For instance, aspirin causes teratogenic malformations in animals, while humans use it daily as an anti-inflammatory. In 2013, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) found that there were 150 clinical trials of treatment undertaken to reduce inflammation, but all failed despite their success during testing. Cases like this made it necessary to find alternative methods to animal testing.
The practice has granted a new life to hopelessly ill patients, modified medicines and made the surgeries fruitfully creative. New alternatives to this practice are in making, but considering the rate at which doctors are fully developing them, the society is still years away from bringing up something that can totally eradicate the traditional animal experimentation. Just like every other scientific practices, animal experimentation, too, becomes a success only after many trials and errors, causing a loss of few innocent animal lives. However, those numbers do not seem as a burning concern when compared to other industries that depend on animals. According to statistics, food animals kill 56 billion animals in the USA which largely differed from the 25 million of animal experimentation (Laws and Regulations).
This idea was used by Galton and many others to promote selective breeding in humans to improve the human species. The Eugenicists described lack of education as familial feeble mindedness and rural poverty as shiftlessness. There was an overestimation of scientific difficulties in seeing whether traits are heritable and to what limit hereditary contributes to the trait as most human traits are strongly influenced by environmental factors and are even complex in their inheritance pattern. Though genetic counseling aims to help patients and families in managing pain and suffering caused by a genetic disorder , it should not be confused with the eugenic goal of decreasing the incidence and recurrence of a genetic
When diagnosed with cancer, many people turn towards a costly yet effective treatment known as chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the use of surgery and radiation to shrink and stop the cancer from growing and spreading to other cells. Though chemo can also metastasize to other parts of the body, away from the original tumor. This can cause very harsh side effects such as nausea and pain to occur. It is difficult to treat this illnesses because many drugs can not be taken along with chemotherapy.
Human genetics is a rather mysterious concept, the very genome of humanity is a code that needs to be cracked, it holds many secrets, and potentially what research has found is still just the tip of what the human race really is. It could be the files to the data that is DNA, as genetics does not just have to be what determines your appearance, your brain chemistry, and to an extent your entire way of thinking, it is much more the passing of certain immunity genes against certain diseases, features gained from environmental adaption, and even potentially skills (Or more appropriately the potential to develop skills), it is even possible Homo Sapiens aren’t even the only form of human anymore. Now this even opens the possibility of super powers/unnatural
In order to formulate an opinion on this much controversial topic we should understand how genetic screening works and consider both the benefits and risks of this matter. Ethical, social, and medical factors all play a role in determining this. Genetic screening is where DNA samples are used to identify gene or genes related to a genetic disease or disorder. It determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder and detects some genes known to cause genetic disorders. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a specific type of genetic testing done in-vitro process.
But due to the paucity of reported cases, there is a definitive lack of standard protocol for the management of this type of tumor. Surgery is still the mainstream in the treatment of NECs, and the radical surgery with a wide excision margin has been advocated since the aggressive nature of this rare tumor. It has been reported that in a lingual NEC case, a surgical margin of 20 mm resulted in microscopic clearance of only 11.7mm at mucosal margin and 7mm deep margin.  It has been documented that surgery notably improves overall survival over other single modality treatments in NECs. However, in of head and neck region, radical surgery is frequently not feasible due to poor general condition of patient, already existed disseminated disease , or some other reason..