Urban decay and “ghettoization” are the clear result of deliberate and discriminatory housing policies of every level of governments.
The federal government has historically created various policies to maintain racial segregation. Since its creation, the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) has perpetuated discrimination as the protector of all White neighborhoods. The FHA employed a practice called “redlining.” It was a discriminatory practice that diverted mortgage funds away from both urban and suburban, African-American neighborhoods, and toward borrowers in White, middle-class neighborhoods. From 1930 to 1965, three-fifths of all homes purchased in the United States were backed by the FHA, yet less than two percent of the FHA loans were…show more content… Similarly, in State v. Soto, a superior court judge in Gloucester County, New Jersey, granted the defendant 's motion to suppress evidence seized after being stopped on the New Jersey Turnpike. The court held that the seventeen defendants who were African Americans, the majority of whom were males, established a case of selective enforcement based on race. In Soto, the defense conducted a study to determine if law enforcement officers were engaged in racial profiling. The study revealed that an adult African American male was present in 88% of the cases where the gender of all occupants could be determined and that where gender and age could be determined, an African American male 30 or younger was present in…show more content… After reviewing a series of Fourth Amendment cases, the Supreme Court found these cases foreclose any argument that the constitutional reasonableness of traffic stops depends on the actual motivations of the individual officers involved. They agreed with petitioners that the Constitution prohibited selective enforcement of the law based on considerations such as race, but the constitutional basis for objecting to intentionally discriminatory application of laws is the Equal Protection Clause, not the Fourth Amendment. They made clear that “Subjective intentions play no role in ordinary, probable-cause Fourth