In all reality, a police officer is not responding to the skin color of the individual but to the environment in which the crime has been committed. The article “Black Supporters of Racial Profiling: A Demographic Profile” by Shaun L. Gabbidon, George E. Higgins and Kideste M. Wilder-Bonner. Gabbidon, Higgins, and Wilder-Bonner explain how demographic areas can affect how black males maybe looked at when a crime does occur. “Black males are overrepresented among perpetrators of violent crime, they may be perceived as a real threat and thus an appropriate target of racial profiling particularly in disadvantaged communities of color where violent victimization is most likely to occur” (11). This is biased-based policing and not permitted to happen in any of the states in America.
The New York City Police Department ("NYPD") launched an aggressive anti-gun campaign that resulted in the stopping and frisking of tens of thousands of young black and Hispanic men (Gross, 2002). Racial profiling can be isolated into two implications, hard profiling and delicate profiling. An example of hard profiling would be the time when an officer sees a dark individual and without additional to go on, pulls him over for a hunt on the likelihood that he may conveying medications or weapons. Racial profiling would a case like when the state police get a tip off that a particular nationality is trafficking drugs down a specific expressway and get a kick out of the chance to drive a specific sort of vehicle, and from this insight the trooper pulls over a man coordinating this
And we were challenging them not only on racial grounds but we were challenging them on the existence of a whole group of people who are the underclass of this country, white and black, who are not represented” (Americanswhotellthetruth). While on a highway, Moses was ambushed by a machine gun that hit his car and injured his partner which was also a SNCC worker, Moses also survived a violent attack by a police dog outside the City Hall in Greenwood. In an interview for Emerge Magazine, Moses
In some cases, police harassment simply meant people of African descent were more likely to be stopped and questioned by the police, while at the other extreme, they have suffered beatings, and even murder, at the hands of White police. Questions still arise today about the disproportionately high numbers of people of African descent killed, beaten, and arrested by police in major urban cities of America. Since the mid-1900s the words law enforcement and policing have been used interchangeably. In order to understand the present, one must understand the past relationships between law-enforcement and African-Americans. The Webster’s Unabridged Deluxe defines black as of the darkest color; opposite of white ; a Negro; dirty; evil; wicked; without hope.
Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
4,743 lynchings occurred in the United States from 1882-1968, of these people that were lynched, 3,446 were black. Lynching is a tragedy of our Nation’s past time, although tempting to try and erase it from the history books, it must be remembered to attempt to prevent such injustices from happening again. In Ida B. Wells’ speech, “Lynch Law in America.” Ida B. Wells talks about the discrimination and horrendous crimes black people face due to racist white men and a corrupt justice system. The laws created to protect the African Americans; 14th and 15th amendment was ignored, or loopholes were being used to justify the mainly Southerner’s actions.
Law enforcement racially profile people when making traffic stops, people feel like the police target them because of their skin color and are more aggressive to them. On May 14, 2001, three young African American males were pulled over by the police. According to one of the passengers stepfather they were stopped because they were racially profiled, according to the officer it was a legitimate traffic stop due to failure to use a turn signal (Schott). According to the Richard G. Schott: The highway traffic practices of New Jersey and Maryland State Police troopers have been called
“ I swear to the Lord, I still can’t see Why Democracy means Everyone but me “(Hughes’’. Langston Hughes eloquently uses contradictions to express racial inequality in The United States of America. Democracy, a word that suggests inclusiveness, but not practiced during Langston Hughes’s time. This inequality is what drove Hughes mastery of words. Langston Hughes was one of the millions of Black American who faced systemic injustice simply because of their skin color.
Even though there were relief programs designed for different colored Americans, they still maintained pay differentials, racial employment systems, and other forms of discriminations, which shows social injustice during the Great Depression (Williams 790). Although programs tried to create an equal level of justice between people, nothing could stop the unfair treatment between the different races. Social divisions are revealed to be irrational and destructive because of the unfair treatment of people by the color of their
Anxieties of those who fear black liberation. Filled with fears about race, retaliation, reparations and revenge. Criminality and blackness became intertwined and stop and frisk was one of the best indicators of racial criminal profiling. Black people were disproportionately targeted and about 17x more likely to be stopped. It was a confirmation that white people associated crime with black people.
The sentencing disparity for drug use by race is disproportionate for African Americans because of The War on Drugs. Matthew Lassiter (2015) explains, “In 1951, Harry Anslinger, the commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, collaborated with senate of criminal investigations to target black ‘dope peddlers’ who were luring pretty white blondes into drug addiction”(2015:128). According to Lassiter (2015), Anslinger believed that peddlers, who destroyed teenagers’ lives, required the most sever punishment (2015:129). Using this rhetoric, presidents like Nixon and Reagan would shape the way drug laws are enforced. For example, Richard Nixon made it his goal to focus on treatment, rather than criminal punishment (Yuill 2009).
Racial profiling, poverty and high crime rates are the major contributors to high incarceration rates for African Americans compared to their percent of the general population. Besides social and economic isolation, African Americans have been marked as inherently criminal with the war on drugs and crime targeting them even when the statics shows they are less likely to be in possession of cocaine for example (Walker, Spohn, DeLone, 2012). The high number of African Americans on death row is the result of institutional racism. Majority of the judges in the United States are white and more often than not are either implicitly or explicitly biased in their rulings (Walker, Spohn, DeLone, 2012). Institutionalized racism refers to an expression
Racial profiling can occur when law officials use race to as a basis to suspicion in non-specific investigations. Creating a profile about the different kinds of minorities who commit certain types of crimes may lead officers to focus more on a particular group and act according to the general stereotype rather than particular behavior. An example of racial profiling could be the use of race to regulate which pedestrians to search for illegal goods or the use of race to regulate which drivers to stop for traffic violations, stopping mostly black or brown colored minorities. Stopping black drivers, just to see what law enforcement might discover, has become so frequent in some places that it has it’s own name: driving while black. A year-long study conducted by the Domestic Human Rights Program of Amnesty International USA found that the unlawful use of race in police, immigration, and airport security procedures has expanded since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001.
It also concluded that it took a longer time for a police officer to shoot an armed black man than a white one. There is no doubt that there is police brutality. In the old case of Rodney King, it was a clear case of police brutality the police should be prosecuted and put into jail over something of that nature. There are police who feel too empowered and feel like they gen do anything without. Consequences Sadly, this does happen at times the police will abuse their power over people and get away with it.
Moreover, The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Rutgers Law School Constitutional Litigation Clinic have stated that “of the approximately 100,000 parolees and probationers subject to the state 's felon-disfranchisement law, more than 60 percent are African American or Latino, which the ACLU and Rutgers say is in large measure a consequence of racial profiling in the criminal justice system.” Inclusive to what The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Rutgers Law School Constitutional Litigation Clinic have stated, minorities like African American or Latino have been disenfranchised because of racial profiling. The fact that minorities are losing their voice and fundamental right show cases the fact that disenfranchise further institutionalizes racism in the U.S.. Therefore as a progressive nation, disenfranchisement should not be allowed because it promotes racism. Overall ex-convicts should be allowed to vote because post-incarceration voting restrictions are a violation of universally accepted human rights standards and disproportionately excludes