Marxism is principally concerned with modes of production, social exploitation through unjust distribution, and social emancipation through the transcendence of capitalism. Karl Marx himself anticipated the growth of globality that ‘capital by its nature drives beyond every spatial barrier to conquer the whole earth for its market’. Accordingly, to Marxists, globalisation happens because transworld connectivity enhances opportunities of revenue creating and surplus buildup . Marxists reject both liberalist and political realist explanations of globalisation. It is the outcome of historically specific impulses of capitalist development.
“ imperialism is a policy which aims at creating, organizing and maintaining an empire (which is a state of vast size composed of various more or less distinct national units and subject to a single centralized will”. (Moritz B. 1973) another definition of imperialism as defined by Parker T. would be “ imperialism simply means the domination of non-European native races by totally dissimilar European nations.”(Parker T.1926). Colonialism on the other hand though often associated with imperialism as defined by J. Hobson as
Imperialism can be defined as “the takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation to dominate the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation.” Moreover, since social darwinism supported imperialism, it, therefore, justified racism. During the time of industrialization and imperialism, Europe was on a constant search for resources for their industries and turned their attention to Japan, the Congo, and India. However, while Europeans sought to take over those countries as they also felt that it was their duty to “improve” them. Unlike the Congo and India, Japan was able to modernize and adapt. As a result of European colonization, the Congo and India’s population suffered as India starved and the Congo became divided.
European imperialism rapidly increased in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to economic, political, and social forces. Technology from the industrial revolution started and advanced the desire for more control that European nations obtained. Economic forces such as “survival of the fittest”, political forces like powers of the government and wars, and also social forces such as segregation of races all contributed to imperialism. Political factors played the strongest part in spreading and increasing imperialism. In Focus on World History: The Era of the First Global Age and Revolution by Phan Thanh Gian, the french imperialism was explained.
Millennial capitalism is a system in which capital and production distanced from people and consumption becomes more visible. In that sense, illegal, unethical and magical implications take place to reverse the effects. It is another sense, as Comaroff states, casino capitalism. People have nothing to lose so they manage their social and economic life in this way. John and Jean Comaroff explain the results of millennial capitalism as follows: “A striking corollary of the dawning Age of Millennial Capitalism has been the global proliferation of occult economies.
The solution was imperialism because the colonization of other countries satisfied Europe’s demand for raw materials and created a trade output for their extra products. This movement to imperialize during the Industrial Revolution was driven by the promise of wealth and their citizens’ pride in their nation’s success. The rise of European nationalism during the Industrial Revolution brought a common desire to re-establish Europe’s imperialism throughout the world. The Western nations justified their colonization of territories with the idea of their “civilizing mission” and scientific racism. The rise of nationalism in Europe post Industrial Revolution was to blame for the growing popularity of imperialism.
Sovereignty is the independence of a state as it can control over territory and it will also govern. The state consists of a society as it has citizens living there. States uniquely enjoy their sovereignty in international relations as it can legitimately possess coercive military power and create economic wealth form their territory. States can declare wars, as they have the ability to control most of the economic influence within a region. Larger states often dominant the role of international relations within the region.
Capitalism is normally characterized by struggle between producers. Other facets, such as the contribution of government in production and ruling, vary across models of capitalism. Advantages a. Economic liberty helps political autonomy. If governments own the means of manufacture and set prices, it perpetually leads to a powerful state and creates a large administration which may extend into other areas of life.
Globalism is defined as placing the interests of the “world” above that of the individual country in terms of economics. Correspondingly, colonialism is defined as a policy of gaining full or partial control of a country, occupying it, and exploiting it economically. To better understand the definitions, understanding the context is important. When it is said that the world receives priority, who essentially is “the world?” Secondly, the definition of colonialism seems much more elaborate compared to that of globalism. It need to be understood that during the age of colonialism physical land was of great importance in order to rule the world.