Within the 1800’s European Explorers forced their way through the insides of western and central Africa. Along the west coast of Africa, European nations traded for slaves, ivory, and gold. Africa was under full assault by the 1800s, as European nations competed with one another for control of the continent. Europe wanted to imperialism (take over) Africa and the forces (what they did) that helped them succeed is the new technology, Nationalism, and lastly the most important industrialism.
During the 19th century many European explorers began exploring the interior of Africa. As a result many European countries wanted to colonize Africa.There were many reasons for Europeans wanting to imperialize Africa. Some of the driving forces behind European imperialism were economic, nationalism and White Man’s burden.
The Industrial Revolution which originated from England, slowly began its worldwide expansion in the mid-1700. The modern world was formed through the modifications made during the time of the revolution and new imperialism. Technology advancements, fresh demands due to imperialism and more efficiently produced resources, they time period flourished for many years. The Industrial Revolution and New Imperialism resulted in both favorable and undesirable outcomes.
According to the overview, “between 1500 and 1800, European nations traded for slaves, gold, and ivory along the west coast of Africa, but they did not go deeply into the continent.” In 1884, fourteen countries met in Berlin to discuss the division of Africa to prevent war from breaking out.. This meeting would come to be known as the Berlin Conference led by Ottoman Bismarck. Up until 1885, they stated that if a leader wanted to control a certain part of Africa, then they must prove that they have control over that area and that was it. This was the beginning of European imperialism in Africa. Based on the documents, expanding empires and having a new source of materials was the driving force of imperialism in Africa.
What was the driving force behind European Imperialism in Africa? Between 1500 and 1800 the Europeans knew little about the interior of Africa their presence was to buy and sell slaves for pots, cloth, and weapons and set sail to America. Late as 1870 ten percent of Africa was under Europeans control and most was along edges by 1914 ninety percent of Africa was in control four years later. Due to the countries that held African colonies in 1914 that involved the British, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spain, and Belgian. France and Britain were the main conquer in African colonies, because there conqueror of land in Africa.
The industrial revolution propelled African imperialism to a level the world had never seen before. During the late 19th century, borders in Europe became difficult to alter and the only way to expand was in other continents like Africa. Europe exposed Africa’s weakness and preyed on them, leaving the continent in disarray. The industrial revolution induced African imperialism for economic prosperity, the rise in cultural and social power, and political motives.
Many Europeans did not treat the Africans well. Many colonists started colonizing in the New World for three main reasons: God, Gold, and Glory. Colonists met Native Americans there and wanted the Native Americans to work for the them, which led to bad treatment of the Native Americans and also led to slavery. The Industrial Revolution soon started and people needed more natural resources for all the resources being produced. During the 19th Century, many Boers made colonies, land controlled by another country, on the land lended to them by Africans; soon afterward the colonizers started deceiving the African. They wrote a treaty to give a limit to African rule and held the Berlin Conference to divide Africa for the six European countries.
Colonization was rebirth if you will in the later 19th century through the wake of industrialization which gave Europeans a new desire to conquer and established the need to go and claim natural resources to be used in the factories. Many of the larger nations joined in this rebirth with the most notable actions being the Scramble For Africa which showcased the most rapid expansion of European influence ever seen before. "The effects were profound. In 1875, 11 percent of the continent was in European hands. By 1902, the figure was 90 percent."(Cole, 534) Europeans also had significant influence in Asia in which they conquered large pieces of land in India and Indochina in order to establish a strong trade connection. European powers in these regions constantly tough each other for supremacy while completely disregarding the people who live there which lead to many different catastrophes.
Imperialism was a huge advancement for Europeans in the nineteenth century. Europeans sought to colonize Africa in search for raw materials and markets. Colonies in Africa were affected negatively by Imperialism, it brought many problems regarding military, economic, and social changes to the African society. Warfare, natives losing their land, and foreigners degrading the natives were all significant effects that were bad for the Africans. Each of these dramatic changes were brought on by the Europeans and hurt Africa in many ways.
During the 15th century, the world was caught in the age of exploration. After Columbus, everyone realized that there were still undiscovered land masses that held numerous resources and extreme profit. Due to the fact that the Americas were occupied by Spain and Portugal, much of Europe turned its eyes to Africa. Consequently, Africa was a huge land mass that was just waiting to be explored, especially since Portugal hadn’t gone beyond the outer edge. The reasons for European imperialism in Africa were due to the want for more resources to boost the economy, the advantage of better technology, and a need to establish a position of power.
Between 300th century and 1400th century, the most powerful African kingdoms had achieved great goals, such as developing a trade system. The empires in Africa had a solid economy which was supported by their trade. Before the Europeans arrived, these empires had hierarchies and roles in society, which helped the trade system flourish. Some achievements Africa accomplished included trade, wealth, and a complex society.
During the period of imperialism in Africa all of the countries were competing for the title of being the richest and the strongest. In fact, the whole scramble for Africa was an opportunity for countries to enhance their overall economy. For example, King Leopold II of Belgium was determined to get the area of land so he can become more wealthy. France’s politicians thought that an overseas company would strengthen the country when it came to wealth, prestige, and power, so as a result they invested in land more toward the west and north-west. Britain wanted to protect their trading routes which required them to purchase land in East Africa, and they they soon discovered the rewards of the land so the were determined to obtain as much as possible.
Europe takes advantage of Africa. The main driving forces behind European Imperialism consisted of three fundamental factors which included Political, Technological, and Economic. The way these three components are involved in the driving force because they all helped shape and push everything together to make more efficient.
The only thing Europeans loved more than political power was increasing their trade. In the 1800’s European nations had a desire to get a lead to widespread imperialism in Africa. With the end of slavery in 1833, European interest in Africa shifted to seizing colonies. King Leopold of Belgium acquired a private country in Africa that was 95 times bigger than Belgium and his purpose was to make money by taking out ivory and rubber. European leaders then became aware of two things: Africa was contained with natural resources, and a scramble of the riches could begin a war between European nations. At the Berlin Conference in 1885, European Nations claimed parts of the African continent through rule of occupation. Though they did not consider the land claims of Africans, they did agree to specific principles concerning colonization, which included free trade, and improving the moral and material well being of Africans. Before European nations stayed away from the African continent, and now powers such as England, France, and Germany want large amounts of land of Africa. Several reasons European nations began to colonize Africa included political competition and ideological superiority; however, economic profit was the primary driving force to imperialize Africa.