Abortion is in fact the ending of pregnancy before birth and refers to the destruction of the embryo or foetus prior to life by removing the fetus in the uterus. An abortion can be either occurs naturally, that is due to an accident, disease, trauma or genetic incompatibility of the mother and foetus. Or, it can occur artificially, that is the foetus is removed by medical means or in the backstreet by unqualified people known as charlatans. Such risky abortions often result in septicaemia. Abortion is a major problem affecting most couples especially when contraceptives are ineffective.
It was once mentioned on an online article that the demand for child sex workers are usually higher than any other adult sex workers because, the perpetrators are often under less risk of contracting HIV/AIDs from children, however, the children instead are left in great danger of contracting this deadly virus. Moving on, child prostitution also causes long-term psychological harm, including anxiety, depression and behavioural disorders. The child may constantly feel worry, nervous or uneasy about something that they are unsure of its possible outcome which may lead them to have weird behaviours. Moments spent in this sexual industry will always haunt there memories even after they leave the industry. All these psychological harm can put the child’s life in danger of self-harm, suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder.
It helps infertile couple to have a baby of their own (with their own eggs and sperm) 2. Unless donor egg or donor sperm is used, the DNA will be that of intended parents only The Disadvantages of IVF are: 1. IVF can result in undesired multiple births i.e delivery of more than 1 baby. This is more likely in ivf treatment than naturally because clinics and doctors tend to transfer more than 1 embryo in the womb so that the chances of successful delivery is higher 2. IVF can result in Overian Hyperstimulation Syndrome.
The child’s development is already effected before it is even born. The majority of homeless parents are single women, who have a high tendency to engage in alcohol and drug abuse even when pregnant. The baby may suffer from serious health problems such as defects of the face, fingers, arms, and legs. The baby is also at a higher risk of premature birth or even stillbirth. Homeless infants (1-12 months) are prone to infectious disease due to a lack of immunisations and little access to health care.
The women may be exposed to conditions which may result in ending a pregnancy as a means or saving the life of the mother such as the heart failure, the severe infections, as well as the severe cases of preeclampsia. The preeclampsia means that a woman develops high blood pressure. The ending of the pregnancy of a woman may be the only option. In this case, if the pregnancy is not ended, the mother's life will be put at risk (Painter, 2012) There may be a spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage. This happens if a fetus stops growing and the body begins to expel such fetus.
Importantly, the fetus is tethered by an umbilical cord, whereby blood flow is constantly in jeopardy. Thus, normal labor is a process where repeated fetal hypoxic events may occur, which may lead to academia in the baby. Diagnosis- Identification of “fetal distress” based on fetal heart rate patterns is imprecise and controversial due to intra and interobserver variations. Because of high interobserver and intraobserver variability in the interpretation of fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings101, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the United States National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) convened a workshop to standardize definitions and interpretation for electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), propose management guidelines, and develop research questions. Major outputs from this workshop were a clear standard for FHR interpretation and a three-tier system for the categorization of intrapartum EFM10,12.
In the stages of endometriosis you can experience different types of effects and stages. The stages are referred to as Stage I to Stage IV. The reproductive system can be compromised and cause infertility. Anatomically the disruption of pelvic structures, multiple production and activation of peritoneal macrophages cause the inflammation of the lower abdominal cavity. It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst.
They can have health complication after they have an abortion they are infection that occur after it's a three day infection that can lead to more complications ,cervical damage. One common infection is called sterility infection when having this infection a women is more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy . Ectopic pregnancy mean when the egg is inserted outside of the womb or uterus .There has also been psychological effects on the women. They later resent the fact they had an abortion some later become depressed that hey gave up their own child. There are other option besides abortion .
A congenital anomaly is defined as an abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism that is present at birth and results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Differed group of congenital anomalies discovered at different time of pregnancy but most of them are early discovered if the mother is monitoring her pregnancy very early. The choice to terminate the congenital anomalies is another issue because it raises a heated debate regarding a malformed fetus still exists or not and whether it is considered as human being has the right to live or it is merciful for him to end its life. A review of 20 studies found overall termination rates following antenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation, are as follows: Down’s syndrome (92%), Spina bifida (64%), Anencephaly (84%), Turner syndrome (72%), and Klinefelter syndrome (58%). (11) This topic need another paper to discuss about.
Discussion: Pre-eclampsia a hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDP) is a major disease which seriously endangers the safety of mother and fetus during pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia affects approximately 2-8 per cent of pregnancies worldwide and is considered as the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality (14).Thus major efforts are being made to identify effective biomarkers for the risk assessment and disease management. An ideal biomarker of pre-eclampsia is the one that would allow an accurate prediction during the first trimester as it offers a wide range for effective treatment that may help in complete recovery or reduce the severity of disease (15). The preset study mainly focuses on biomarker Lipocalin-2 and