There are two Wechsler test: The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (WISA). Dr. David Wechsler viewed intelligence in the terms of intellectual performance. The reason for reasoning the intelligence matters how much intelligence one has and if they are able to able to the environment; what also matters is how well they uses their intelligence. Individual’s performance is measured by how well they can focus. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales tests five areas of cognitive ability: Verbal Comprehension, Nonverbal and Fluid Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed.
Advantages/strengths of Howard Gardner’s theory: 1. Helps to explain that an individual has a variety of different understandings in different types of multiple intelligence. 2. The theory was based upon educational evidence and case studies. Disadvantages/weaknesses of Howard Gardner’s theory: 1.
Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social. Interactionists argue that language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. The Interactionists argue that "children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" ( Bates,1993;Tomasello,1995, as cited in shaffer,et al.,2002,p.362). The main theorist associated with interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky.Interactionists focus on Vygotsky 's model of collaborative learning ( Shaffer,et al.,2002). Collaborative learning is the idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically (
The three criteria are intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, and educational performance. Intellectual functioning is usually measured by a test called an IQ test. In adaptive behavior, what a child can do compared to other children of their age, and in educational performance a child’s language development and communication; cognition and general knowledge is measured as well as their written language, reading and mathematics (Intellectual Disabilities FAQ, n.d). In my opinion both of the websites are valuable because they provide the definition of intellectual disabilities as well strategies for teachers and parents. They also provide signs and symptoms that can occur in children with intellectual disabilities.
Children are a product of behavioral genetics and a product of their unique environments. If we use the ideas that Pinker has laid out for us about children and how people become who they are, we can use it as a basis to compare and contrast those ideas with that of Social Exchange Theory. Social Exchange theory is most commonly related to individuals such as Thibuat, Kelly, and Smith. Exchange theory is a theory based upon individuals interactions as a cost/benefit analysis. It is the assumption that individuals will act in ways that result in rewards instead of punishments.
3. The strengths and weaknesses of the student should be considered when assessing the IQ scores. These are important abilities that can provide insight into a student’s intelligence. 4. Evaluators need to make sure the data they obtain is used in the way intended.
He has written many books, including the unschooled mind; how children think and how schools should teach (1991), The Disciplined Mind: Beyond facts and standardized tests (1999). Will we continue to be measured by “IQ”, or will Gardner’s ideas takeover current systems of intelligence testing, such as
Pintrich & Schunk (1996) say that these cognitive theories are homeostatic since there is a need “to make behaviors consistent” (p. 50). As Woolfolk (1987) claims that attribution theories are cognitive theories “concerning how we explain behavior and outcomes, especially successes and failures” (p. 316). These theories describe how the individual‘s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation. Bernard Weiner is one of the important educational psychologists responsible for relating attribution theory to school learning (as mentioned by Woolfolk, 1987). According to Weiner, most of the causes to which students attribute their successes or failures can be characterized along three different dimensions: as internal or external (inside or outside the person), as stable
Hearing about this model for the mind for the first time, I found it greatly intriguing and full of great insight into how humans think. However, I also noticed some points in the theory which seemed skewed or contradictory, for which I have selected this theory as the topic of my paper. Throughout this paper I plan to first provide a brief summary of the history of cognition and memory modelling, then identify the flaws I have seen in the two systems model of mental activity, and finally to propose my own theory based
Handbook of Nonverbal Assessment (Second Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-50604-3 This book discusses the context of nonverbal tests. It describes assessments of intelligence, bias, and multicultural aspects within the test context. It also discusses nonverbal assessment of intelligence related abilities; personality, academic skills, behavior, and neuropsychological.