A world without sounds are unimaginable. Alarm, car horn, birds chirping, ocean wave, and industrial process are the example of sounds which have significantly influencing human life. According to Koo Kean Eng, Zulhisyam Salleh and Fizatul Aini Patakor (2015), sound is a form of energy that produces a sensation perceived by the sense of hearing in humans. In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates due to the particles collide against each other, at each collision, the next particle is moved further, through a medium of gas, liquid or solid. In contrast to light, sound propagates much slower (330 m/sec) than light (300,00 km/sec) which could be explained during a thunderstorm where a flash comes first, and a thunder comes after a few seconds.
If the affected cell has severe damage, it will die. Even though it still can reproduce, the daughter cells could be lacking in some life-sustaining component and eventually will die. Another possible result of radiation exposure is mutated cell instead of it dies, and eventually leads to cell mutation which could create malignant tumour. A developing embryo is also sensitive to radiation exposure similar to the tumour but the effects are totally different. It can be said that the whole body sensitivity depends on the most sensitive organs as well as the most sensitive cells.
There are usually 2 or 3 charge units in the fullerene cage, but this is difficult to determine accurately. Due to its design, metallofullerenes are more stable than normal empty fullerenes up to very high temperatures and have uses in medicine. A metallofullerene with gadolinium is used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging scans and other metallofullerenes may be able to transport radioactive ions to cancerous tissue, providing a
Ionization refers to the production of gas phase ions suitable for resolution in the mass analyser or mass filter. There are a many on sources available, each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. For example, Electron Ionization (EI) gives a high degree of fragmentation, yielding highly detailed mass spectra which when skilfully analyzed can provide important information about structural elucidation/characterization and facilitate identification of unknown compounds by comparison to mass spectral libraries. However, EI is not suitable for coupling to High-performance liquid chromatography, since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly. Thus EI is coupled predominantly with Gas Chromatography, where the entire system is under high
Tumor treatment by hyperthermia has limitations, however, that the most of nanoparticles do not have high specific absorption rate. At least 10% of tumor weight should be absorbed in order to be effective to heat-ablate tumors through hyperthermia. Treatment of malignant tumors at any site in the body is expected to be possible if agents that convert RF energy into heat can be delivered to the malignant cells. However, RF ablation suffers from the disadvantage that it is an invasive method that often requires insertion of electrodes into the body to deliver RF to the tumor sites. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of a correctly determined size are appropriate for in vivo hyperthermia applications, as they have no net magnetization without the external magnetic field.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Radioactive material can result in burns, toxicity, increased rates of cancer, decay of the bones and diseases of the blood. Radioactivity is tasteless and odorless and encourages the change of electrical charges in the body. If exposed to enough radiation it allows cells to freely convert into cancer cells. Humans have the ability to handle a specific amount of radioactivity before deemed dangerous. A nuclear reactor releases a small amount of radioactive particles into the atmosphere during normal function.
At long distances, two nuclei repel each other due to the positive protons and the electrostatic force. However, if two nuclei were to be brought close enough the electrostatic repulsion can be overcome by the attractive force of the nuclear force, which becomes stronger at nearer distances. In the diagram below, the electrostatic force between the positively charged nuclei is repulsive, but when the separation is small enough, the attractive nuclear forces is stronger. As a result, the requirement for fusion reaction to occur is that the two nuclei are brought close together for enough time for the nuclear force to
Since its introduction, the use of TMS in clinical neurophysiology, neurology, neuroscience, and psychiatry has spread widely, mostly in research applications, but increasingly with clinical aims in mind. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, as discovered by Michael Faraday in 1838. If a pulse of current passing through a coil placed over a person’s head has sufficient strength and short enough duration, rapidly changing magnetic pulses are generated that penetrate scalp and skull to reach the brain with negligible attenuation. These pulses induce a secondary ionic current in the brain. The site of stimulation of a nerve fibre is the point along its length at which sufficient current to cause depolarisation passes through its membrane.
For example, the forward scatter parameter reduces on cell shrinkage while nuclear condensation causes an increase in side scatter. Apoptotic cells can also be detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining, using light microscopy. Although this is a simple technique, it cannot detect apoptotic cells in early stages and the technique needs to be supplemented with other methods of detection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is considered as the gold standard to confirm apoptosis. TEM can detect apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation among other changes.
There are two types of radiation: non-ionizing radiation which is safe for plants and ionizing radiation which is not safe for plants. The difference between ionizing and non-ionizing is non-ionizing does not carry much energy, but ionizing radiation carries a lot of energy. Ionizing comes from ions. Ions are atoms that have a net electric charge because of losing electrons. If these ions get to a very high level, it can destroy the nucleus of the atom of the plant which can affect an organism 's DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid).