Hamayan recognizes that “the acquisition of language is a development process and there are predictable stages of language proficiency, and yet the learner may pass through the different stages at different times”. Balbi discusses the stages of language acquisition based on the TESOL Pre-K-12 English Language Proficiency Standards as starting, emerging, developing, expanding and bridging. The starting, entering phase is where ELLs has little or no understanding of English and may rarely communicate, sometimes referred to the silent period. ELLs students should
On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language. This includes learning grammatical rules and semantic structure making. Krashen (1988) concludes that learning is less important than acquisition. However, he explains that this distinction is crucial as it explains how a big majority of adults are able to possess a second language. Keeping this in mind, I would argue that although the CPH hypothesis makes sense in explaining brain plasticity in acquiring a language, there is a way for adults to learn a second language albeit they might not do so perfectly.
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
Along with the language aspect, there is a cultural aspect too. Mrs. Hamma’s course is introducing it’s students to other immigrants who have similar stories but much different cultures. Being culturally relative in the classroom, will
Bilingualism does not only refer to knowing phonological, lexical and syntactical aspects of language. Instead, it also demands being aware of sociolinguistic aspects of language use such as regional and social dialect. Hence, being bilingual is a matter of being communicatively able in two or more languages, being comfortable using one or the other and being able to code switch properly, according to the interlocutor and context of communication. Causes of bilingualism might also lead biliteracy. Nowadays, many people are raised or immersed in societies which provide a language different from their home language.
That may be because I am more familiar with it and I am used to say it only in my mother tongue. As Anna Wierzbicka writes ,“two languages of a bilingual person differ not only in their lexical and grammatical repertoires for expressing and describing emotions but also in the sets of ‘emotional scripts’ regulating emotion talk” . Perhaps, for a bilingual person, a word has not always its authentical meaning in a foreign language as it has always been thought it would have in its native
The importance of critical thinking couldn’t be more highly prioritized in academia, even when its application faces much constraint in English language development. What could be so important about a non-linguistic skill in classrooms that are generally devoted to improving linguistic abilities? Critical thinking might play an extra-linguistic role in the context of English language learning, and writing could be one of several modalities used to realize this role in secondary classrooms. It is stated that in the 1970’s, many sociologists and cognitive scientists were interested in the acts of composing as a way to observe how students learn (Sokolik, 2003). Subsequent teaching developments in writing that emphasized problem solving build upon the foundation of these findings.
In addition, most secondary schools, universities, and jobs require a foreign language to be known. People should learn a foreign language at an early age, because it helps young learner’s learning skills, makes it easier to perfect/acquire a new language, and helps to prepare for schools.
Odlin reconsiders a question fundamental to many language teachers and educational researchers: How much influence can a learner's native language have in making the acquisition of a new language easy or difficult? Odlin analyses and interprets research showing many ways in which similarities and differences between languages can influence the acquisition of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. While these subjects are beyond the scope of my research, the section on phonetics, phonology and writing systems provides the necessary evidence to understand the effect of the transference of writing patterns from Japanese Romaji to English. This is a suspected cause of many problems. While the age of the book suggests that some of the research could be obsolete, it serves as a reference and a foundational background on the subject of transference in writing patters, even between Asian and English scripts.
But it does not mean if passed, then a teenager. The ability to develop foreign language become reduces. Besides the age factor Experience and school environment as well as the teaching. They play an important role in the development of language skills. So the bilingual is necessary: using