Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask. Equipment • Filter paper • Buhner funnel • Tubing • Clean solvent • Disposable dropper Method 1.
One of the proposed method to overcome this drawback is to coat the nZVI particle surface with surfactants, upon rapid desorption of surfactants into the waste water the particle stability would markedly reduce. Alternate method introduces support to immobilize nZVI on surface, thus reducing agglomeration of nZVI. The immobilizer studies for such purpose includes, MWCNTs (Lv et al., 2011), cellulose, biochar, montmorillonite(Zhang et al., 2013), fullers earth and bentonite(Shi et al., 2011) etc. In an earlier study by (Sharma et al., 2015) we found the optimum loading with lower
Surfactant – Compounds that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants. Micelle – An aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid. A typical micelle in aqueous solution forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single-tail regions in the micelle centre. This phase is caused by the
In this experiment, extraction was used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with different polarities are used to dissolve and separate different solute components, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, ethyl acetate, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution, were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components, without irreversibly reacting with it. While initially it seems as though the organic acid, base, and neutral compounds would never pass into the aqueous layer, the conjugate acid and base of the organic base and acid respectively are soluble in water.
This technique is usually done in a closed vessel to ensure that the atmosphere is saturated with solvent vapour and that evaporation from the plate is minimised before the run is complete. The plate is removed when the solvent front approaches the top of the plate and the position of the solvent front recorded before it is dried (this allows the Rf value to be calculated). TLC has applications in industry in determining the progress of a reaction by studying the components present; and in separating reaction
Halogenated solvents are denser than aqueous solvents and thus halogenated solvents sink to the bottom. Therefore, the water drop test should be conducted to be sure which layer is aqueous. Additionally, to transfer a compound from the organic layer to the aqueous layer the compound can be converted to an ionic form as ionic compounds are polar, it will not dissolve in the organic layer and will pass through it to the aqueous layer from which it can be extracted while the other organic compound remains in the organic layer. To convert it to an ionic compound the compound needs to be reacted with either aqueous acid or
2.1 Urbanization and river water quality Due to movement of people from rural to urban areas, physical growth of the urban areas occurs, which ultimately leads to the urbanization, Over the past several years, river systems have always been extensively altered to meet various human demands, which led to them becoming the most intensively influenced ecosystems by human activities on the Earth (Nilsson, et al., 2005 )]. ‘’Among these human activities, the influence of urbanization on river systems was the most significant, and 60% of river systems were changed profoundly because of urbanization in the world’’ as cited by (Nilsson, et al., 2005 ) Recently, a number of studies have been done to understand the effects of urbanization on river water quality. The study manifested on Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is in China, that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, and urban river water was polluted more seriously, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality (Ouyang, et al., 2006 . ).Additionally the rapid urbanization caused a series of changes to the river systems and brought about water degradation in the tuna region in china (Deng, et al., 2015).
Introduction Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to be separated. In fact, the separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases . Chromatography may be preparative or analytical.
Solubility is usually expressed in units of molarity (moles/L), but sometimes g solute/ g solvent is used. The second term is a solubility product, Ksp. This is a special equilibrium constant for the dissolving of a salt in water. By convention the equation for the reaction is always written with the solid as the reactant, and the ions as products. For a general salt, AmBn, the equation would be: The equilibrium constant for such a salt would be: The solubility product expression matches the coefficients in the equilibrium equation, and that the solid is not included in the Ksp equation.
LITERATURE REVIEW What is water pollution? As the country is becoming more and more populated, the demands for social services have increased significantly. This has led to an increase of the pollution in many developing towns such as Ga-kgapane. The most disturbing and problematic forms of pollution in Ga-kgapane is the pollution of the natural streams. Water pollution is when there is a build of one or more substances in water to such an extent that it causes problems for animals or plants.
Hydrogen chloride has a very powerful smell. It is in the form of a gas but only when it is at room temperature which is approximately 25 Celsius and when the pressure is high. When you add water to hydrogen chloride then it breaks down into small pieces which are known as dissolving. The solubility of hydrogen chloride is very high this means that it can dissolve in water quickly because it dissolves many times in its own solution (the gas form of hydrogen chloride). It is very soluble because the smaller the chain of the molecules are then the energy will be required in small quantities however if the chain is long then it will need more energy so that means that the longer chain will have a slow reaction.