Lastly is the evolution of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). MRSA is a bacterium that is responsible for various infections in humans that are difficult to treat due to its development of a resistance to common antibiotics. MRSA is very common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes. Biological Diversity
Firstly, CRISPR has been tested and proven to work on all types of cells, including those of plants, animals and microorganisms. Therefore, it can be used to alter the genes of other organisms as well as ours, giving them characteristics useful for us. For example, cow DNA could be edited for them to produce more milk, increasing the efficiency of the dairy industry. Secondly, CRISPR is much cheaper than alternative forms of genetic engineering. According to Gene Therapy Net, the components to produce and test a CRISPR-Cas9 system can cost as little as thirty dollars.
They work by utilizing a variety of substances to defend the human body against potentially deadly microorganisms (“Vaccine” 1). Vaccines operate by introducing a weakened version of the virus, or a strand of a protein from the bacteria into the immune system. In turn, this insertion causes the production of antibodies which help to fight the actual infection, by attacking the virus upon its entry into the body (“Vaccine” 1-2). Previously, vaccines revolved around observations that humans will develop an immunity to a disease they are exposed to, given they survive (“Vaccine 1). However, vaccinations are far
During the immune response, the body renders the disease and fights back. Small pox vaccine was a key example, where a weak strain is introduced into the human body and the immune system creates the appropriate mechanism to fight the strain. Using this idea, Pasteur proposed that if a milder version of the disease was introduced into the subject’s body, immune system will fight the disease and produce the proper fighting mechanism which could further help the subjects fight other diseases including the anthrax disease. He began to experiment on the few cattles in the field. This experiments looked promising.
Microorganisms are considered as miniatures of chemical factories. Until Pasteur showed that fermentation is initiated by living organisms and showed that lactic acid fermentation is caused by living organisms that people seriously began to investigate microbes as a source for bioactive natural products. Then, scientific serendipity and the power of observation provided the impetus to Fleming to usher in the antibiotic era via the discovery of penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. After which, array of bioactive metabolites was isolated from microorganisms including fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. Fleming in 1929 discovered the serendipitous penicillin from the filamentous fungus, Penicillium notatum, and he discovered the broad therapeutic use of this agent in the 1940s (Demain and Fang, 2000).
and Noraziah M. Zin, 2008. The Usefulness of PCR Amplification for Direct Detection of M. tuberculosis DNA from Clinical Samples. Biotechnology 7(1): 100-105 10) Dobner, P., S. Ru¨sch-Gerdes, G. Bretzel, K. Felsmann, M. Rifai, T. Lo¨scher, and H. Hinder. 1997. Usefulness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomic mutations in the genes katG and inhA for the prediction of isoniazid resistance.
The most common treatment for these infections, caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the antibiotics. There are many kinds of antibiotics using in the modern days, but the first kind of antibiotic being introduced for treating Staphylococcus aureus was Penicillin in 1943. This kind of antibiotic stops the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that makes the bacterial cell well stronger. This eventually makes the cell wall formation and degradation become imbalanced, consequently lead to the cell to die. Other kinds of antibiotic were quick introduced for treating Staphylococcus as well.
Antibiotics are widely used throughout the world for agricultural, industrial, and medical purposes. The primary concern for the use of microbes is its growing resistance to common antibiotics released within the environment. Antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) have been prevalent in aquatic environments such as the public drinking water treatment system, source water, and tap water and multiple researchers have conducted tests to observe the effectiveness of the water treatment plants in the removal of harmful contaminants. While a This review aims to discuss the antibiotic resistance crisis in order to find solutions to combat the main source of selection pressure that causes antibiotic resistance to occur. Mutations provide a source for bacteria to become resistant within the environment.
Biotechnology can be defined as the use of microorganisms, plants or animal cells or components to produce products and processes useful to humans. The term ‘Biotechnology’ was coined by Karoly Ereky in 1919. Biotechnology essentially deals with industrial scale production of biopharmaceutical and biological. The application of biotechnology include therapeutics, diagnostics , genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste treatment and energy production. Biotechnology have the following three critical research area • To provide the best catalyst in the form of improved organism, usually a microbe or pure enzyme.
In this era of modernisation, science and technology has been growing at very fast speed, new technology are developed every day to make thing easier and simpler for the humans. Biotechnology is one of the growing industry all over the world, generally indulge in manufacture of food, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, protection of environment etc. it is synergistic of biology and technology. Biotechnology is not new but exists since ancient times and its progress has been witnessed through many centuries. The term “biotechnology” is defined broadly to include not only the old biotechnology such as the traditional method of manufacturing fermented products but also the new biotechnology represented by genetic engineering and recombinant technology.