The hydrothermal technique usually gives hydroxyapatite powders a high degree of crystallinity. However, need high temperature and the obtained powders are usually in agglomeration and the size distribution are usually in wide range. The main advantage of emulsion technique is the simplicity of the process, good crystallinity product without high temperature, and favours the formation of small crystallites with a sufficient narrow size distribution. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite has many advantages, which include high product purity, homogeneous composition, and low synthesis temperature. When the mass production of high crystalline hydroxyapatite is required, mechanochemical treatment is more suitable.
matrix are hydrophilic character, ease of derivatization, However, an important limitation in the use of agarose and other porous supports is the high cost. This problem can be circumvented by employing reversible methods that allow matrix regeneration and re-use. The enzymes can be attached to the support via interactions ranging from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages to stable covalent bonds. Let us see Enzyme immobilization methods now Enzyme immobilization methods have been classified into two types. They are Irreversible enzyme immobilization and Reversible enzyme immobilization methods.
Usually or traditionally E.coli was used to express eukaryotic genes, since it was well understood and easy to work with. Expression of eukaryotic proteins in E.coli may be problematic because sometimes proteins don’t fold in a proper manner, which may lead to insolubility and storage in inclusion bodies, and moreover lost of bioactivity of the product. E.coli strains posses secreation mechanism , these mechanism are low efficient and result in secreation in periplasmic space, whereas secretion by Streptomyces species provide great result of secreation directly into the extra cellular medium. So Streptomyces sepecie contain more effective mechanism than that of E.coli. Hence this is a big advantage to biotechnological industries for the production of good amount of heterologously expressed proteins.
ADVANTAGES AND EFFICIENCY Electrolysis and the processes and techniques involved in it provide countless benefits to industries and societies. For example, electrolysis produces the products in the purest possible form (esp. metals) in most cases and since it is a continuous process, it is efficient. In the electrolysis of brine, large quantities of sodium hydroxide and chlorine can be produced, which are two high-demand industrial chemicals, at relatively reasonable costs and at fairly acceptable levels of purity. DISADVANTAGES AND SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Despite the several benefits that electrolysis brings with it, there are quite a few potential health and environmental hazards, among other imbalances, associated with its usage.
These properties are clearly studies and used in many food and beverage industries to increase their value. This essay is about the various factors that involve in influencing the antioxidant activity and the properties that enhance the antioxidant activity (Torino et al., 2013). Fig: Effect of fermentation on
Essentially, chemical engineers perform large-scale processes that convert raw material, living cells, chemicals, microorganisms and energy into desired useful forms and products. In addition to traditional careers in the energy, chemical and oil industries, chemical engineers also enjoy increasing opportunities in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology electronic device fabrication and environmental engineering. The unmatched training of the chemical engineers is so done that it becomes essential in these areas when processes involve the chemical or physical transformation of matter in the industry. Chemical engineers working in the
But not all applications have economic feasibility to be practically/industrially implemented. MD can be used as either single process or coupled with other technologies. One of the attractive applications for MD is for treating high saline water (brine) such as concentrate of Reverse Osmosis (RO). This is applied in the case where, RO membrane becomes more expensive, due to very high osmotic pressure, and is problematic due to scaling phenomenon. MD, which is not limited by the concentration of solute and has ability to work with near saturated solution, is interesting to be used in this application.
To increase both safety and to make drug delivery easy within the body, chemical engineering and biomedical communities have devised a variety of improved drug delivery techniques. To design methods that can guarantee the delivery of precise, dosages to minimize the risk for overdose or insufficient dosing are some of the challenges of chemical engineers. A chemical engineer Robert Langer, and his colleagues discovered that when there is mixing of hydrophobic polymers such as ethylene acetate and lactic glycolic acid under appropriate conditions, highly porous structures can be formed by which specific molecules can be released for hundred days. In recent years targeted drug delivery has become an issue of discovery in biomedical and chemical engineering departments. Principle of chemical engineering related to polymer processing, diffusion and mass transfer phenomena have played an integral part in the design development, manufacture and use of novel drug delivery vehicles which are based on biocompatible, biodegradable polymers.
Many research has been conducted to overcome the several disadvantages found in the DTC scheme, from which most important is variable switching frequency  notably at low speed condition. Now many researchers are more focusing on how to improve the performance of induction machine in terms of dynamic torque response in different speed operations condition. There are many solutions to enhance the quality of performance of induction machine, either from creating a new algorithm, upgrading hardware system or changing the another processor with a sampling period smaller -. In 1990s sees the emergence of technologies that require higher level of power and voltage so multilevel inverter has been highlighted as the solution at such level of operation, because it offers several advantages such as very low harmonic distortion, low dv/dt, no output filter requirement etc. .
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are the most common type of thermal equipment employed in chemical process industries. This widespread use can be justified by its versatility, robustness and reliability. Despite the technological advances of other exchanger types (e.g., plate-and-frame, spiral, lamella, etc. ), shell-and-tube heat exchangers will maintain a central position in industrial activities in the next years