The fiscal policy is primarily an instrument in the hands of the government whereby it estimates its revenues and expenditures in the economy. This is a very important tool as it would define the flow of money from different sources, indicating the level of activity in the economy. It also defines the broad policies of the government indicating the outwards flow of money in to different sectors of the economy to maintain the overall health of the economy and fulfill its social goals. Apart from the fiscal policy every country has monetary policy at its disposal. This is primarily a tool at the disposal of the central bank of a country which uses different tools to manage the macro economic variables of a country to keep the economy stable or to stabilize it in situations of fluctuations.
This paper explains the U.S. financial system to CFO of Jagdambay Exports. I will explain the following questions. 1. Explain the components of a financial market and its relevance to Jagdambay Exports. Be explicit and explain to the CFO how financial markets differ from markets for physical assets and why that difference matters to Jagdambay Exports.
It is the rate at which depository institutions borrow and lend from one another in the federal funds market. The FOMC’s open market operations lower the rate by increasing the reserves supplied to the economy, or alternatively, raise the rate by reducing the supply of balances. Due to a term structure of interest rates, the changes in the short-term interest rates are transmitted to the long-term interest rates since the financial markets expect the changes to persist for an extended period of time or assume that they convey information about the future monetary policy. Also, the inflation inertia ensures that the change in the federal funds rate effectively influences the real interest rate which is equivalent of the cost of borrowing. By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy.
When money was first introduced, it was used as an object to facilitate trade amongst individuals. Capital depends on money because the capitalist’s number one desire is to accumulate the most money he or she can. Marx describes a difference between money being described as money and money being described as capitol. Marx states The first distinction between money being described as money and money being descried as capitol is nothing more than a difference in their form of circulation. The direct form of circulation of commodities is C-M-C, the transformation of commodities into money and the re-conversion of money into commodities, selling in order to buy but alongside this form, which is quite distinct from the first: M-C-M, the transformation of money into other commodities, and the reconversion of commodities into money, buying in order to sell.
Firstly, let me start by explaining the meaning of macroeconomic and microeconomic. Macroeconomics is the division of economics which help us to study the behavior and performance of an economy; it also helps us to focus on the aggregate changes in the economy for example Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation and unemployment. Macroeconomics focused on the determinants of total national output, it studies the national income not only the household or individual income but the overall price level; it also analyze the demand of total employment in the economy not only the individual. Secondly Microeconomics, basically microeconomics is the opposite of macroeconomic. Microeconomics is the study of individuals, households and firms behaviour
The value of a currency is the worth of it as compared to or with other currencies. The value of a currency against other currencies is the exchanged rate of that currency. Exchange rate management or control in countries differs. While some practice fixed exchange rate regime, others also allow the forces of demand and supply to determine the value (price) of the currencies. Currency fluctuations normally happen in countries where they practice the free exchange rate system.
Monetary policy is enacted by a central bank that controls money supply that is circulating in the economy. This money supply influences inflation and interest rates that determine consumption level, employment rate and cost of debt. Expansionary monetary policy involves in buying treasury notes and declining interest rates on loans of central banks. These actions help in making the money supply to increase and making interest rates lower. This policy also makes consumption to be more attractive corresponding to savings.
For the economy as a whole, demand pulled inflation refers to the price increases which results from an excess of demand over supply. It is a form of inflation and categorized by the four parts (households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers). When these parts want to purchase greater output than the economy can produce and we need more cash to buy the same amount of goods as before and the value of money falls, so they have to compete in order to purchase limited amounts of products and services. Generally, the demand-pulled inflation result from any factor that increases aggregate demand. Also, an increase in export and two factors controlled by the government are increases in the quantity of money and increases in government purchases
On the other hand, the LM curve is affected by Monetary Policy. An expansionary monetary policy (where the monetary authority of an economy purchases bonds to expand the money supply) would cause the LM curve to shift to the right. A contractionary fiscal policy (central bank buys back bonds to reduce the money supply in the economy) would shift the LM curve to the left. IS/LM curve shift can also cause fluctuations in Business Cycle. Business Cycle is the movement of GDP in the long term.
In this case when the government borrows, it would lead to a higher demand for loanable funds, meaning it increases the interest rates. When interest rates increase, it lowers consumption and investment. Referring back to the graph, the government borrows money, which shifts DM0 (initial demand for money) to DM1. Simultaneously, the quantity demanded increases from Q0 to Q1 (as the government borrows), creating a temporary shortage of money. By borrowing so much money, the government “crowds out” private individuals and private commercial interests.