The fiscal policy is primarily an instrument in the hands of the government whereby it estimates its revenues and expenditures in the economy. This is a very important tool as it would define the flow of money from different sources, indicating the level of activity in the economy. It also defines the broad policies of the government indicating the outwards flow of money in to different sectors of the economy to maintain the overall health of the economy and fulfill its social goals. Apart from the fiscal policy every country has monetary policy at its disposal.
This paper explains the U.S. financial system to CFO of Jagdambay Exports. I will explain the following questions. 1. Explain the components of a financial market and its relevance to Jagdambay Exports. Be explicit and explain to the CFO how financial markets differ from markets for physical assets and why that difference matters to Jagdambay Exports.
It is the rate at which depository institutions borrow and lend from one another in the federal funds market. The FOMC’s open market operations lower the rate by increasing the reserves supplied to the economy, or alternatively, raise the rate by reducing the supply of balances. Due to a term structure of interest rates, the changes in the short-term interest rates are transmitted to the long-term interest rates since the financial markets expect the changes to persist for an extended period of time or assume that they convey information about the future monetary policy. Also, the inflation inertia ensures that the change in the federal funds rate effectively influences the real interest rate which is equivalent of the cost of borrowing. By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy.
When money was first introduced, it was used as an object to facilitate trade amongst individuals. Capital depends on money because the capitalist’s number one desire is to accumulate the most money he or she can. Marx describes a difference between money being described as money and money being described as capitol. Marx states The first distinction between money being described as money and money being descried as capitol is nothing more than a difference in their form of circulation.
Firstly, let me start by explaining the meaning of macroeconomic and microeconomic. Macroeconomics is the division of economics which help us to study the behavior and performance of an economy; it also helps us to focus on the aggregate changes in the economy for example Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation and unemployment. Macroeconomics focused on the determinants of total national output, it studies the national income not only the household or individual income but the overall price level; it also analyze the demand of total employment in the economy not only the individual. Secondly Microeconomics, basically microeconomics is the opposite of macroeconomic.
The value of a currency is the worth of it as compared to or with other currencies. The value of a currency against other currencies is the exchanged rate of that currency. Exchange rate management or control in countries differs. While some practice fixed exchange rate regime, others also allow the forces of demand and supply to determine the value (price) of the currencies. Currency fluctuations normally happen in countries where they practice the free exchange rate system.
Monetary policy is enacted by a central bank that controls money supply that is circulating in the economy. This money supply influences inflation and interest rates that determine consumption level, employment rate and cost of debt. Expansionary monetary policy involves in buying treasury notes and declining interest rates on loans of central banks. These actions help in making the money supply to increase and making interest rates lower. This policy also makes consumption to be more attractive corresponding to savings.
For the economy as a whole, demand pulled inflation refers to the price increases which results from an excess of demand over supply. It is a form of inflation and categorized by the four parts (households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers). When these parts want to purchase greater output than the economy can produce and we need more cash to buy the same amount of goods as before and the value of money falls, so they have to compete in order to purchase limited amounts of products and services. Generally, the demand-pulled inflation result from any factor that increases aggregate demand.
An expansionary monetary policy (where the monetary authority of an economy purchases bonds to expand the money supply) would cause the LM curve to shift to the right. A contractionary fiscal policy (central bank buys back bonds to reduce the money supply in the economy) would shift the LM curve to the left. IS/LM curve shift can also cause fluctuations in Business Cycle. Business Cycle is the movement of GDP in the long term. It is usually a mixture of upward and downward movement.
In this case when the government borrows, it would lead to a higher demand for loanable funds, meaning it increases the interest rates. When interest rates increase, it lowers consumption and investment. Referring back to the graph, the government borrows money, which shifts DM0 (initial demand for money) to DM1. Simultaneously, the quantity demanded increases from Q0 to Q1 (as the government borrows), creating a temporary shortage of money. By borrowing so much money, the government “crowds out” private individuals and private commercial interests.
The Federal Reserve controls over the federal fund rates give it the ability to influence the general level of short-term market interest rates. The Fed has three main tools at its disposal to influence monetary policy which are the open-market operations, discount rate, and reserve requirements. b. Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. The concept of Monetary Policy simply stated is that the cost of credit is reduced, more people and firms will borrow money and the economy will heat up. c. The controls that Federal Reserve used worked because the use of the three main tools the Fed uses is the most important that can manipulate monetary policy.
During this decade, the Fed pursued a discretionary stop-go monetary policy using a trade-off known as the Phillips Curve, which alternated efforts to decrease high inflation and high unemployment. To target high unemployment, the Fed enacted an expansionary monetary policy, or a go period, by lowering the short-term nominal interest rate called the federal funds rate, to loosen the money supply. The federal funds rate is the interest rate that a bank charges another bank when loaning out their reserve balances in order for the other bank to maintain reserve requirements. The Fed chose to target the federal funds rate because it is very influential in the economy, affecting monetary and financial conditions. After inflation mounted during the go period, the Fed would enact a contractionary monetary policy, or a stop period, by raising interest rates to tighten the money