A well can “use on average up to 6 million gallons of water plus chemicals and sand to keep the fissures open” each time a well is fracked. For states like California who are in a severe drought (that could be millions of gallons of water a year, depending on the number of wells in the state), that is water being wasted that could be used for agriculture or human consumption. If a well is located near a water supply like a river or underground well, the water can become contaminated like the spring on Jackie Shulkie’s property that began bubbling after nearby fracking started on her neighbor’s yard. In “How Fracking Affects You,” Josh Fox who produced the documentary “GasLand” showed a clip of a man who was able to light the water from his tap on fire, due to Benzene, a known carcinogen, in the water. Drinking water was exempted from the Clean Water Act by the Bush Administration in 2005.
The increase in the production of oil and natural gas due to fracking, has helped create opportunities for more people to get employed in the production and the delivery activities. The more people get employed in United States, the more people are financially okay and there is decrease in poverty. Another example of direct advantage of fracking is the ability of the United States to ensure trade balance with other countries. Between the year 2007 and 2011, there have been a decrease in the importation of natural gas by 25 percent and a decrease in the importation of petroleum from a high amount to low amount between the year 2005 and 2011. One example of the indirect economy effect is the generation of electricity.
An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, it is a form of pollution that tends to be caused by human mistakes or carelessness. When oil is being transported across the ocean though pipelines or by ships there is a lot of room for accidents to happen. Accidents involving tanks, pipelines, drilling rigs and storage facilities are very common, but the attention tends to revolve around the bigger, catastrophic spills rather than the little ones that happen frequently (Kaushik, 2016). There are on average 70 spills happening every day, mostly insignificant, but still worth preventing. (Biello, 2013) One of the largest oil spills in history was the Gulf War Oil Spill, occurring in 1991.
In the six hours of grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay Crude, 8 out of the 11 tanks on board were damaged. As a result, the event affected more than 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline was damaged. The Exxon Valdez oil spill had a lot of negative effects. The oil spill was a kind of domino affect, it had a terrible impact o the environment, which led to a economic downfall, which consequently affected social norms. The goal of this paper is to look at the
Introduction- Hydraulic fracturing or as we know it, fracking Is natural gas that trapped in tiny pockets in shale rock formation. Fracking involves injection of large amounts of water, sand and chemicals underground at high pressure to extract fuel. Environmental groups and some neighbors of oil and gas wells have linked fracking to water pollution and some have linked it to increased earthquake activity. Fracking is Regional and a old problem- When fracking started- Fracking began on June 1998 Pro- Some people think that it 's a good thing because we get natural gas that way. natural gas can be used a lot without affecting the environment.
But climate change does not stop at increasing just the prices of water. Water is also used to generate electricity, and with a shortage of water, the power plant won’t be able to generate as much electricity, when water was abundant. Californian’s will, therefore, have to face with an increase in their electricity bill. But climate change doesn’t stop their either. The shortage of water has it, farmers, hard as well.
In the hydrosphere, all dissolved down in the groundwater, was me; a carbon molecule. For hundreds of years, I have been there, mixed with the water below, until I precipitated out. I ended up at Havasu Falls in travertine. Usually, travertine consists of deposited minerals from mineral springs, and my journey has taken me to combine with other carbon molecules joined in a form of limestone. I have been soon on my way into a new destination to the limestone lithosphere.
The Keystone XL pipeline would create up to 20,000 direct jobs and 118,000 spin-off jobs (Palliser 2012, 10), which could give a boost to the local economy. Moreover, it would give more energy security, which would make the United States less dependent on countries like Saudi Arabia. It would also stimulate the United States’ economy because the communities along the pipeline’s route would benefit from $5.2 billion in property taxes as long as the pipeline is in use (Palliser 2012, 11). The risks involved in building this pipeline could be devastating for the environment and the people who live on these lands and drink the water. “Oil-sands crude is more corrosive to pipelines than normal crude oil and difficult to clean up if spilled […] The greatest concerns would be a spill or leak near environmentally sensitive places such as wetlands, streams and rivers, shallow groundwater areas, areas near water intakes for drinking water or for commercial/industrial uses, and areas with populations of sensitive wildlife or plant species” (Palliser 2012, 9).
There have been many natural disasters that occurred in the United States. However, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 had the biggest impact because of the immense amount of money spent on repair, the backlash President George.W Bush received for not responding immediately to the catastrophe, and the massive migration that occurred when people’s home were destroyed. Therefore, Hurricane Katrina affected the United States more than any other natural disaster to date. To begin with, one of the reasons Hurricane Katrina was the most devastating was because of the huge amount of spending. With horrible winds gushing through the land and destroying homes alongside with injuring and taking away the lives of multiple civilians, money had to be spent to repair
And by the help of science and technology they improve certain ways to extract petroleum easily and quickly. 4) Low cost : Comparing to other energy source petroleum is cheaper than it by declining technical and physical effort to extract it. The Disadvantage of petroleum: 1) Resources Are Limited: Although oil is a natural fossil fuel, its resource is now limited. The high demands of the modern world for energy have stressed the conventional sources of oil reserves. The ever increasing cost of petroleum in the market is a clear indication that oil resources are decreasing.