The Pressure Retard Osmosis (PRO)

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Osmotic power was first recognized in 1954 [8], when it was observed that the energy available from a river meeting the ocean is equivalent to that of a waterfall over 200 m high, or 0.66 kWh of energy per m3 of freshwater. This means that all over the world, where rivers meet oceans there is a potential for power production. The global potential for this power is estimated at 2.6 TW, enough to supply 20% of the world’s annual energy needs [9]. Several processes for salinity gradient energy conversion have been proposed. Among the most developed is pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) [10]. PRO is a membrane-based process that exploits the natural phenomenon of osmosis, which is driven by the chemical potential difference between solutions of…show more content…
The Equation of state is usually expressed as: P = ρ*R*T (7) where P is the pressure, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature and ρ is the density. The equation (7) can be changed as, P = c *R*T (8) where c is the concentration and the equation is similar to Van’t Hoffs equation for osmotic pressure. 3.1.2 Approximation: Flow is considered as three-dimensional, incompressible and laminar flow assuming multiphase mixture model and all other physical properties are assumed to remain constant. 3.1.3 Multiphase Mixture

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