One of the ethical issues of today that the medical field is facing is about genetic engineering. A genetic engineering technology also known as genetic modification is a way in which the organism’s genetic genome, a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is being directly manipulated using biotechnology. You can customize your offspring by having the opportunity to choose which genetic trait your unborn child should posses, best examples are gender, eyes and the color of the hair. Genetic engineering in lay man’s term is designer baby.
The fact that the cells may come from embryos is not an objection, because the embryos are going to die anyway.” (Stephen Hawking) There are multiple pros and cons to stem cell research. Some pros might be the innovative idea about stem cell research which is primarily due to the medical benefits in areas of regenerative medicine and therapeutic cloning. Stem cells provide huge potential for finding treatments and cures to a vast array of diseases including different cancers, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's, MS, Huntington's, Parkinson's and more.
Risks of Genetic Engineering Although the benefits of genetically modifying organisms may seem vast, it is important to consider the fact that this is a very new technique, and the risks involved are not fully understood. Since the reason behind genetic engineering is basically to improve the quality of human lives, it is important to discuss the potential adverse affects that genetic engineering may have on human beings. One risk associated with genetic engineering is that it is based on the idea that each trait of an organism is encoded in a single gene, and that the transfer of that specific gene will also cause the transfer of the favored property. However, genes cannot be regarded as separate entities.
Option 1: Designer Babies What is a designer baby? Designer baby is a non-scientific but popular journalistic term that refers to gene therapy, a technique that uses genes, screening, and modifying embryos to cure hereditary diseases. The term is also used to describe a possible scenario in which scientists choose specific traits or physical characteristics (genetic-makeup) before a baby is born. This process can help to remove many genetic diseases stemmed from defects in mitochondria ("BBC - Horizon - 2005 -
This method is used for measuring mechanical activity of the heart like the opening and closing movement of valves during each cardiac cycle to estimate the fetal heart rate signal. (10) It uses ultra-sounded technology by bouncing sound waves off the baby and return a representation of the fetal heartbeat rate (3). It depends on generating ultrasound beam with frequency of 1 or 2 MHz (the most common frequency are used in the range (1-2.3MHz). (11) Although, it’s intended for use by health care professionals, it’s becoming more and more popular for personal uses.
In biomedical and behavioural research, there can be issues that arise during the discovery of new processes and products, such as the ethicality of certain experiments and the results obtained. Back in the old times, when standards for conducting scientific research and experiments were not strictly adhered to, experiments conducted resulted in people or other living things being put in harm’s way, to obtain a certain result or confirm a suspicion. While such experiments claimed to be justified because they were meant to advance medical knowledge, is it always right to make sacrifices for the greater good? In this essay, I will use some case studies to discuss ethical issues in biomedical research. A common ethical issue concerns the use
The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process.
The history of DNA testing goes as far back as the 1920s when scientists first identified blood types in humans, which was initially used for medical procedures. Through the 1990’s other relevant blood typing procedures were used to identify individuals, as in forensics, biological relationships, as well as targeting specific regions were mutations or markers are found. In the 2000’s scientist developed different types of genetic tests to identify ancestry, predisposition to genetic medical and/or mental diseases (The History of DNA, 2018). This recent advance in genetic testing provides people with information about their health and can help them make informed decision about managing their health, as well as lifestyle changes or deciding not to have children if you discover that you are a carrier of a genetic disorder.
Measurement of serum uric acid is recommended beside other biomarkers used in pre-eclampsia as it is of great diagnostic and prognostic value for fetus to assess the severity of morbidity, identifying those fetuses that are likely to have IUGR and high perinatal mortality. Additional studies involving larger populations are needed to further investigate the role of these biomarkers in the diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia to avoid serious maternal complications and give the best possible chance of fetal
Every action a person takes can affect the lives of others even when its unintentionally. Our journey in life can lead us down many different paths, some which are predetermined by others even before we are born. In the film Gattaca, the main character, Vincent Freeman is born into a futuristic world. This world determines your status by your genetic makeup. To ensure you have a child with the best possible genes the parents go in and have a lab scientifically alter their embryos, These babies would be the best genetically, giving the baby a higher status within the futuristic world.
Without HeLa cells, half of the human race would have been extinct and scientists research would not be as advanced as it is today. HeLa cells have caused science to be impacted by being able to retain information through research and expand their philosophy on science. The scientific information presented is important to everyday comprehension which benefits the health of the human race. Imagine living in a world where HeLa cells are
Feedback from an expert eye can actually put the 10,000 hours of practice in good use. We can 't simply assume that by dedicating a set amount of hours we will achieve the results that we wish. Goleman also states that concepts like attention-chunking, emotional empathy, and system blindness influence the pursuit of excellence and can affect, how one
Another major concept that was starting to make a push during this period was that in order to practice positive eugenics, negative eugenics also had to be practiced. Muller along with other eugenicists including: Frederick Osborn, William Allan and others believed that the prevention of defective conditions was essential and the base of the movement. They knew the benefits of negative eugenics, including its social acceptability and technological feasibility. Geneticists and scientists now understood the importance of genes and their different
M6D1 Ethics and Genetic Testing As we all can agree, our genes play a highly important role in making us who we are as humans. If the information produce by genes is normal than everything can turn out normal and infants can be born healthy. There are those incidents the genetic information produce by genes is wrong and results of this information can lead to injury, disease, and/or illness of the fetus (Munson, 2012).