aquatic organisms and disturb the integrity of the ecosystem (Mester and Tien 2000; Puvaneswari et al., 2006) by alters the pH, increases the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).Dyes industries have also a serious role in environmental pollution. Dyes mainly used in paper, textile and leather industries. Pollutant released from these dyes industries cause water and soil pollution. Water and land pollution by dyes industries affect large numbers of people and environment. These pollutants affects in many forms.
The atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen introduced the term "anthropocene" in the mid-1970s (Crutzen et al 2000). The term is sometimes used in the context of pollution emissions that are produced as a result of human activities but applies broadly to all major human impacts on the environment (Scott 2008).The sources of the contaminant provide pathways for the release of not only organic contaminants but also heavy metals, which can be highly toxic in very small quantities (Memon et al., 2001; Memon and Schroder, 2009). The study of metals in the marine environment has received considerable attention because of their biological significance as well as the possibility of their transfer to man
Bioremediation is the use of natural microorganisms or plant’s to break down hazardous chemicals into non-toxic or less-toxic substances (“What is Bioremediation”, n.d.). The prescribed book only provides information of bioremediation to clean up oil, using microorganisms to consume the oil (Botkin & Keller, 2014). Therefore, this paper will provide a broader perspective of bioremediation. Providing a quick history of where it all started, all the different disciplines in which bioremediation can be found and used. Dissolved heavy metals in water, especially stormwater is one of largest cause of water pollution.
It can be defined as a group of organic chemicals and have been used to hinder the process of oxidative degradation of food products, fats and oils and polymers. Antioxidant can be defined as forms of molecules that help to maintain the body’s chemical reactions. They assist in preventing excessive activity of free radical molecules. Free radicals are molecules that are very reactive; having too many free radicals can cause damage to cells and tissues. Rich sources of natural antioxidants are generally provided from plants, which include
Succinctly, the process of remediation is brought about by biological entities such as micro organisms or plants, which convert hazardous waste into non hazardous form (Dwivedi 2012). Based on the process of removal and transport, bioremediation is classified into in situ and ex situ. In in situ remediation, contaminants are treated at the same site. Ex situ remediation involves, complete transfer of contaminated material from the affected site to another place, where the treatment is carried out by biological agents. These days, ex situ mode of treatment is preferred over in situ for remediating contaminated water, soil and environment (Vidali 2001).
Heavy metal refers to metals and metalloids that are toxic to both plants and animals even at a very low concentration. Some of these heavy metals do not perform any known physiological function in plants, such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb or Se, these are non essential metals. Others, such as Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and Zn, are essential elements required for normal growth and metabolism of plants. Essential elements can lead to poisoning when their concentration rises to beyond optimal levels . Human activities, such as mining, industrial and domestic waste water and sludge, fertilizers and pesticides application to field, also atmospheric deposition are the main sources of heavy metal contamination in plants .
This is done to ensure that the soil where the plant is to planted in have complete chemical components to ensure a normal growth and life cycle. Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen in soil are caused by soil organisms that eat organic matter (Meister,
Waste water has always been a major threat to the environmental imbalance. Process waste streams from the mining operations, metal plating facilities, paper industries, power generation facilities, electronic device manufacturing units, and tanneries may contain plethora of heavy metals, for example zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, mercury, nickel etc are disposed above the hazardous limit of the local discharge zones. These heavy metals are not biodegradable and pose great threat to human health and environment. Heavy metal pollution is a problem related with areas and zones where intensive industry, road ways, areas of dumpsites and automobiles activities takes place. Usage and their uncontrolled discharge in to the environment has caused lots of hazards to man, other organisms and the environment itself.
Environmental damage occurs throughout the stages of exploration, production, refining, transportation and end use consumption. Potential impacts include water contamination due to effluent of wash and cooling water discharges, seepage from storage and waste tanks, discharges of water effluents rich in inorganic salts without appropriate treatment and water contamination of oil spills which could be very catastrophic such as the incident of The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in year 2010 and the oil spill resulting from the Gulf War in 1991. Also, this industry adds a considerable amount of NOx, SOx and particulate emissions and largely contribute to the soil and groundwater contamination resulting from the different chemical compounds and the produced
AN REVIEW ON BIOSORPTION OF DYES BY BACTERIA, ALGAE, FUNGI AND YEAST ABSTRACT Wastewater from the textile industry can contain a variety of polluting substances including dyes. Increasing, environmental legislation is being imposed to control the release of dyes into the environment. Conventional waste water treatment are too expensive since they produce large amount of byproducts, muck production and disposal problem, so biological treatment is relatively in expensive way to remove dyes from the waste water. The successful removal of dyes from the effluent is depends on the microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, etc. , to convert the pollutants into non-toxic substances.