Today, we are living in digital era. Over the past decade, technology has to become one of the important technologies for creating, processing and transmitting and storing the information. Unfortunately, there are some people are misuse of the technology for their own profit. One of the computer crime that happens nowadays is digital forgery. Digital forgery is the process of making, adapting or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive or make it usually large amount of money by selling the forged items.
Actually, they're entirely different from each other. Spoofing: A hacker can impersonate himself to gain access. unlike hijacking, it actually creates a new session using target stolen credentials instead of using existing session. Hijacking: In contrast to spoofing, Hijacking takes over existing active session. it will depend upon some legitimate user for authentication and establish a valid connection.
Many forms of spyware, however, are more malicious and can have serious effects on users and businesses. Key logging spyware, for example, transmits to the author of the spyware a log of every keystroke entered on that computer. The author can then sift through this data to find valuable information, such as credit card numbers, security codes and confidential information, from that user or their business. Other types of spyware search through the data stored on the host computer for particular types of file, which are likely to contain confidential or personal information, such as Word documents or images, and transmit them to the spyware
The peer is then informed by the server about the locations where the file is present. The peer then chooses a location and makes a call directly to that peer and downloads the file. Thus, architecturally the system can be seen as a hybrid of client-server and pure peer-to-peer (P2P). The ‘peers’ act as clients and the ‘peer and content directory’ act as server during the registration and querying process. Once the peer knows about the file location, the file transfer takes place between the peers without further inclusion of the ‘peer and content
Malware is malicious software, which means once a person clicks on a link, it immediately downloads and allows thieves to have access to personal information on a computer. Spyware allows thieves to track the keystrokes on a computer to gain data such as passwords to access bank information or acquire PII to commit fraud. It is also advisable to regularly check credit reports to look out for suspicious activity because a thief can obtain personal information, open up a new credit card and the victim may never find out their credit score is being affected. Thieves can also use personal information to forge documents such a passports and birth certificates for illegal immigrants or to abuse the government benefits. In conclusion, with the majority of organizations and individuals using the Internet to store information online, there is a lot of data that can be possibly become uncovered by thieves and used in malicious ways.
Some websites steal our information that involve our pictures and might spread them worldwide on the internet without us knowing. Also, some people might threaten us to give them some amount of money or they will embarrass us publicly even more. There are a huge number in online dating sites of people nowadays who deal with scams in many websites. People may want to buy anything online from a dating website, they can see their usernames, but they don’t know who exactly sells that item. The real people, who are actually selling those items to us, are people who just want to steal our identity or just give us fake items instead.
Types of Passive Attacks (a) Eavesdropping Network Eavesdropping or network sniffing is a network layer attack consisting of capturing packets from the network transmitted by others' computers and reading the data content in search of sensitive information like passwords, session tokens, or any kind of confidential information. (b) Traffic Analysis If information is encrypted, it will be more difficult to read the information being sent and received, but the attacker simply observers the information, and tries to make sense out of it; or to simply determine the identity and location of the two communicating parties. (c) Network Analysis To simply monitor the transmission between two parties and to capture information that is sent and received. The attacker does not intend to interrupt the service, or cause an effect, but to only
Counterfeiting has become a social issue and currently it's being recognized as a global phenomenon. Now a day it's difficult to recognize an original product due to the similar packing. Counterfeiting has become therefore so common that copies of product are available everywhere and with the low costs individuals are attracted towards fake products. It is destroying several industries. Counterfeits are defined as reproduced copies that are just like the legitimate articles including packaging, labeling and trademarks (Kay, 1990).
To engage in IP spoofing, a hacker must first use a variety of techniques to find a trusted IP address and then modify the packet headers so that it appears that the packets are coming from that host. (Vangie Beal, 2014) IP spoofing’s perpetrators trick their victims into interacting with the fake Web site. (Gary Shelly, Misty Vermaat, 2011) For example, the victim may provide private information such as credit card numbers and online banking credentials; or download files containing viruses, worms, or other malware. Unfortunately, IP spoofing cannot be eliminated completely, as the identity of the intruder is unknown, hence, making detection and prevention difficult. (Depak Gahlot,
Hacking is one of the most common and famous devastating practices that may harm the confidential information, stored or processed on internet. On the other hand, hacking is also referred as an activity of transforming or modifying the software or hardware of computer, in order to damage