3.8 MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM Childhood pneumonia is the single most leading cause of death among under-five children. According to 2000 WHO report around 156 million new episodes of childhood pneumonia occurred globally, in that 95% of them in developing countries, out of the above-mentioned cases 8.7% of pneumonia are life threatening and required hospital admissions (Rudan,2008). The incidence was estimated at 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child year in developed countries (Rudan et al.2013). In the year 2010 the incidence was 0.22 episodes per child-year though it is reduced from the year 2000, it remains an important public health problem (CHERG, 2013). Africa and Southeast Asia are responsible for 70% of the worldwide deaths due to pneumonia (Singh 2005).
Duodenal perforation is a very common and fatal complication in patients of chronic peptic ulcer symptoms with inadequate or no medical treatment. Different from the above two studies, Elnagib et al (2008) reported the maximum incidence of peptic ulcer perforation i.e. 38% in still younger patients of age group of 20-30 years. NSAIDs abuse is amongst an important causative factor for perforation accounting for a total of 43% patients with stress and alcoholism together accounting for 23%
Lesson 7 Small-Group Discussion. Patient Safety Step 1 In a report by the Institute of Medicine (2006), Titled, Preventing Medication Errors, “The committee concludes that there are at least 1.5 million preventable adverse drug events (ADE’s) that occur in the United States each year.” These numbers are astonishing given the number of adults that are taking prescription medications daily. Most of the errors occur during the prescribing and administering steps and during an average hospital stay, a patient can expect to have one medication error occur every day (Institute of Medicine, 2006). Medication errors are preventable adverse events and costly to patients, insurance companies and health care organizations (Institute of Medicine, 2006). It is estimated that for every adverse drug event that occurs in a hospital, adds over 8,000 to the hospital stay (Institute of Medicine, 2006).
The Mayo Clinic reports that in the first half of the 20th century, whooping cough was a leading cause of childhood illness and death in the U.S. (CDC, 2000). In 2010, an outbreak in California resulted in the illness of 9,477 and caused the death of ten infants (California Department of Public Health, 2010). This was the biggest outbreak of whooping cough since 1945. First documented in 1981, the epidemic we now know as HIV began to appear as a rare lung infection characterized by a weakened immune system. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) -the final stage of HIV -is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States among people age 25 to 44 (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2012).
This prevention control program team would further monitor the outcomes of the data analysis weekly for three months and later monthly depending on the outcomes. I would meet the team every week for the brainstorming sessions. They would closely monitor the preventive measures in their respective units. They will make sure every staff member is educated above ventilator associated pneumonia. Maintain a hand hygiene data for the entire medical staff which would be recorded with the VAP cases’ data for the regular analysis.
To our knowledge, our case is the youngest one who received a high dose of cisplatin (500 mg/m2) in the absence of intravenous hydration, and nephrotoxicity result in renal failure, hearing loss, visual impairment, severe myelosuppression complicated by life-threatening sepsis were presented in this patient. Although vigorous therapies were given, the patient decreased. As the toxicity of cisplatin is dose-dependent, early elimination of the drug from plasma should be critical in the management. Most of the platinum in the blood plasma is bound to proteins within a few hours after intravenous administration. Binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes is generally believed to be the cause of its side effects, especially ototoxicity and
One woman dies of cervical cancer every 8 minutes in India. Following below the most recent statistics available for survival by the current staging system. Stage Relative 5-Year survival Rate 0 93% IA 93% IB 80% IIA 63% IIB 58% IIIA 35% IIIB 32% IVA 16% IVB 15% Why are some cancers diagnosed late? As we all know that late diagnosis ant late initiation of treatment lead to more chance of morbidity and mortality. In UK, around 25% of cancers are diagnosed through emergency admission to hospital and most of them have lower chances of survival compared to other patients.
Each year, an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a TBI. As a result of these injuries, 50,000 people die, 230,000 people are hospitalized and survive, and an estimated 80,000-90,000 people experience the onset of long-term disability.17 Population based studies in the United States suggested that incidence of traumatic brain injury is between 180-250/100,000 population per year.12 In Europe, from studies in six countries, an aggregate hospitalized plus fatal TBI incidence rate of about 235 per 100,000 was
The study found out that in every three adverse drug effects caused by medication errors, one of them occurs by a nurse medication administration. Additionally, In the US, annual estimated cost of drug caused morbidity and mortality is above $ 1.56 billion. Adverse drug effects caused by medication errors is rated to be between 3% and 28% of all the hospitalizations in the US. In another study done by Wakefield et.al investigating nurses perceptions on the causes of medication errors shows that error at administration was 56.4%, documentation error of 87.5% (the majority), technique error of 73,1% and time error of 53.6%. As it turns out, error in documentation is the most dominant found in the