However re-planning is perhaps not always possible due to project constraints such as being too far into the project to make changes and having a strict timeline to adhere to meaning any change results in a delay and expense . External dependants such as companies involved in a project rely on an accurate time line and incorrect prioritising can create risk to the overall delivery of a project. Understanding the severity of project decisions in relation to risk and then prioritising risk based decisions on a project can help to mitigate downtime or loss on a project (Thomset, 2010). When a challenge presents itself it is at the discretion of the project manager to handle it in relation to the critical effect to the project with continuity of the project being at the forefront. Project managers must have a good understanding of the principles and practice of prioritising work regardless of challenges (Newton, 2013).
This type of structure groups people with specific functional skills or roles, therefore it helps employees to be specialists and results in better productivities. While executing projects in this type of organization, project manager is dependent upon line managers for resource availability. Project manager has to negotiate with different functional team for project resources and it makes the tradeoffs difficult. Tradeoffs and Line staff organization. Project execution is responsibility of project manager and he/she has to do tradeoffs continuously, however Line staff organization is not flexible in determining schedule, cost, and performance tradeoffs due to following facts.
Results of agile projects have also been published by David F. Rico in his paper on “The Business Value of Using Agile Project Management for New Products and Services”. An early study of agile project management showed 10% to 20% improvements in revenues, quality, and cycle time, and 54% reductions in costs. Another early study showed 50% to 60% reductions in time to market and costs, along with 10 times higher development flexibility. The paper from David includes data from several studies on the results of agile project management: Agile project management benefits come from many factors that are too numerous to mention here. The primary drivers are increased productivity and quality.
The elected project manager may not have the necessary skills or expertise to function as a project manager and this will lead to all sorts of issues on the project. “If there is conflict among the team members, it usually works its way through the organisation hierarchy to be resolved, slowing down the project effort.” “ Because projects are not a part of the normal routine in a functional organisational structure, it is necessary to establish a clear understanding of the role and responsibilities of each person assigned to the project team.” (Gido & Clements, 2015: 437). These and other problems can be easily resolved by adopting a matrix organisational structure. As described in (Gido & Clements, 2015:441), “the matrix
 The management will set the scale of decisions and require team to make a certain decision which is related to the project goal and depend on the project process or strategies. It will limit the autonomy but lead all the discussion at the same direction. Sometimes, this kind of external autonomy is beneficial because it provide important feedback to help project completion or encourage creativity within the team by discouraging groupthink.  However, if there is a task about highly complex software development, where the requirements of customer may change frequently, the control and decision-making from external may become ineffective in this occasion. It is better make decision and control inside the group which is easily to deal with the uncertain change of
The most commonly requested accommodation is a flexible or modified work schedule. Some employers struggle to deal with schedule adjustments because of limited manpower or cross-trained employees. Other employers may claim that schedule disruptions will adversely affect the employee 's ability to meet with clients and perform their duties. Scheduling accommodations are not an undue hardship, but merely opportunities to train new
These situations (although not always the case) pose a threat to both the companies competitive advantages and the strategic goals of an organisation. It is then crucial that the correct hiring processes and requirements are set out by the HR department before the hiring processes begin, it also removes the impression that contingent workers are brought in to offset some of the fallings in the initial recruitment
A. Problem Formulation In preparing this paper, various statements related to the major problem are constructed on succeeding problem formulations: in doing a business, several firms start from preparing resources, including IT resources, afterward, they organize those resources in order to achieve a superior performance. Nevertheless, to do the business, a firm can also begin from determining required performance in terms of planning the resources with the intention of accomplishing a cost advantage, which is one of the categories of competitive advantages . However, the firms occasionally have not paid attention to the cost efficiency resulting in a waste of resources. In other words, the process of value engineering, namely the acquisition
Various researchers such as Frink and Ferris, 1999 found that there is an eloquent correlation between conscientiousness and job performance. The reason being almost all jobs requires conscientiousness at a certain level. Planning, organizing and acting upon it is the major task for any job. However, lower conscientiousness does not signify bad performance, but advances to the reason of irrational behavior towards their work. Furthermore, conscientiousness can also be a liability for certain jobs such as artistic, investigative and social jobs that require innovation and creativeness rather than realistic and
Stacy Adams believed that when there is inequity people will react in several different ways, some will justify the inequity by downplaying their efforts, eg ‘I don’t work that hard so I don’t deserve what that person earns’, or highlighting the referents inputs, eg ‘that person is more qualified than me so deserves better pay’. However, his theory relies on the following reaction, if the person perceiving the inequity increases or decreases their inputs to match the referents outcomes to create a more equal work environment. This was shown to be true in a study with piece-rate employees. Those who felt they were being underpaid increased quantity and reduced quality in order to achieve the same pay as other workers. Those who felt they were overpaid reduced quantity while keeping the quality the same, again trying to achieve and equal pay across the board (Kanfer 1990).