For several decades public sector reform has been a focal discourse among researchers, scholars, development practitioners and governments. In developed and developing countries the public sector is a critical part of the state’s apparatus. It can be viewed as the engine of government in planning and implementing its approved policies and programmes. Thus, its effectiveness is of paramount importance in its quest for effective service delivery and accruing the benefits of development initiatives. Consequently, the inability of governments to effectively deliver public goods and services brings into sharp focus the need to evaluate and reform systems, processes and institutions to keep pace with that of developed societies and their mandates.
Incremental partnering also allows the public to commission projects partly before the completion of the entire project. - . Alliance model approach: where the public and private partners agree to jointly build, design, finance, maintain and operate the facilities. The Public Private Partnership (PPP) methods of project delivery remain the effective and efficient way infrastructural projects (school, health facilities, potable water supply, power stations, housings, road construction, etc) delivery. It common to hear technical acronyms such as BOT, BOOT, BOO, BLT, BT, DOT etc among the public private partnership experts.
Public sector is a part of the economy that controlled by a national, state and government. It includes the services such as police, military, public roads, public transit, primary education and healthcare. It also overlaps with the private sector in providing certain goods and services and can move from public sectors to private which called privatization. The public sector consists of an expanding ring of organization, with core government at the center, followed by agencies and public enterprises, and around this ring is gray zone consisting of publicly funded contractors and publicly owned business, which may be, but for most part are not, part of the public sector (Dube & Danescu, 2011). Productivity in the public sector will be enhanced among others, through the rationalization of government institutions and adoption of performance-based remuneration system.
There is a growing awareness among developing countries about the significance of infrastructure supply and capacity building in construction for socio-economic development in general, and for the effective implementation of poverty reduction initiatives, in particular. Consequently, developing countries have for some years now been investing about 4 percent of their GDP in the provision of infrastructure (World Bank 1994). The construction industry is one of the most important components of any developing country’s economic development, being a major contributor to the national economy and providing employment opportunities. There is no doubt that construction is a key activity within any
In the public sector it is very crucial to improve outcomes and efficiency for outlining plans and setting objectives to follow. There are always teams made, sector working groups which are aiming at achieving one objective. There has to be a clear direction which is guided by the ruling party manifesto which is mainstreamed throughout all ministries’ plans. There are different needs for different groups of society, being youth, old, disabled and unemployed. There are studies made to capture the population of groups in order to advise in the allocation of resources.
Public Private Partnership (PPP) is a public sector procurement mechanism whereby the government engages commitments from the private sector. The government transfers a certain level of responsibilities and significant risks to the private sector in providing the public service or facilities for community such as public transportation network, parks and convention centres (Ismail, 2013). In depth, PPP is a transfer of responsibility of financing and managing a package of capital investment and services including construction, management, maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of public sector assets which creates a standalone business (Economic Planning Unit, 2006). Here, the private party will provide public infrastructure-based services
There are because of lack of transparency on how projects are selected and prioritized as PPP. PPP become the last option that used for lower priority projects because of the financing that they often prefer to use public budget funds or international grants, which are much easier to administer. Lack of information and skills in the government contracting agencies may affect the flow of PPP system to interact and negotiate with private investors. Governments in most developing countries face the challenge to meet the growing demand for new and better infrastructure services. The government of Indonesian also had shown a strong commitment to improve the infrastructure development by introducing the legal concept of PPP in their construction industry.
Country governments and their departments and ministries manage, but do not own, the public sector. The police are an example of a public sector business – they are owned by nobody but the general public, and provide services and resources that cannot/are not provided by other companies e.g. passports are provided and paid for by the British government, not a separate company. The revenue/costs of public sector enterprises contribute to the economy and are funded through taxes paid via the
According to Thornhill (2014), these characteristics themselves should not be idealized, because Public Administration and its extending branches such as policy, policy implementation and the policy development thereof ought to be understood as imperfect and not all-knowing because policy is not linear in nature. The purpose of public policy is to bring about change for the nation and positively enhance the lives of citizens. There are components such as political and public participation involved to generate the formulation process, due to that public policy exist in the mainstream. As a developing country, South Africa is faced with many social problems and scarcity of resources, consequently there is a need for relevant policies to be implemented for us to overcome such challenges and improve in all dimensions of the public sector (economic, social, and
1 Introduction Revenue in the public sector is the amount of money that the governments receives from various sources such as taxes, loans, levies, services charges and intergovernmental transfers. The purpose of government at all its governmental levels is to promote the welfare of the public and develop a sustainable economy. Revenue in the public sector is needed for the government to function effectively and deliver on its mandate. The discussion in this assignment views a wide a range of revenue uses and the necessity for revenue in the public sector with regard to the functions and services which government is obliged to deliver. 2 Goals of Government 2.1 Fundamental goals of government Fundamental goals of government are focused on ensuring that there is law and order and that the lives of people in the country are protected at all times.