Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Biosurfactants (BS) are natural surfactants produced by a living organism that decreases the surface tension of water. Biosurfactants are a variety of surface active compounds produced by bacteria, yeasts and fungi in microbial metabolism. Several microorganisms are known to synthesize surface-active agents; most of them are bacteria and yeasts . Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced on living surfaces, mostly on microbial cell surfaces, or excreted extracellularly and contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that confer the ability to accumulate between fluid phases, thus reducing surface and interfacial tension
Oxygenated fuel also help to cut down renewable fossil fuel consumption. . Requirements of good oxygenated properties- -Oxygenates that are to be blended with diesel fuel must have fuel properties appropriate for engine fuel. -Oxygenate must be miscible with various diesel fuels over the range of environmental temperature seen
Some possible stream being viewed are given below- Removal of CO2 from diligence flue gases by algae bio-fixation, triming the GHG emanation of industry or procedure while producing biodiesel. Waste water intervention by withdraw of ammonia, nitrogen trioxide, devising algae to turn using these water contaminants as alimental. After oil separation the outcome algae biomass can be refined into methane, ethanol, livestock feed, used as organic plant food due to its high N:P ratio, or merely burned for energy co-generation (electricity and heat). Combined with their power to grow under rough conditions, and their come down demands for alimentary, they can be fully grown in areas inapplicable for agrarian design severally of the unwind modification, thus not contending for cultivable land use, and can usage wastewaters as the civilization medium , not demanding the use of freshwater.
These are some of the reasons to look alternative fuels such as biofuels. More focus and research should be done in making biofuels a more prevalent alternative fuel source to oil. The first benefit is that biofuels are a renewable energy source and be grown domestically. Second, a form of biofuels called biodiesel can reduce vehicle emissions and lower energy efficiency for vehicles and lastly can tackle global warming. Biofuels are current crops or waste products used as a fuel source in a combustion reaction where energy is produced with carbon dioxide and water.
By harnessing energy from the sun, dependence on more environmentally harmful sources as oil and coal can be decreased.This is a great alternative to these nonrenewable resources. Solar energy reduces the destruction of pristine forests.These forest make carbon dioxide to
Overall, the government should replace fossil fuels with renewable energy in order to protect the environment and create more jobs. Renewable energy includes solar power, biomass energy, hydropower, wind power, and geothermal power (Renewable Energy). Solar power is a type of energy that comes from the sun, in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production of electricity possible (Allen). Biomass power is an organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy which includes wood, wood waste, straw, sugarcane and a variety of agriculture. When this material burns, it releases heat which makes steam for the generator to form
Biodiesel is one of the biofuels with the most compatible characteristics with the fossil fuel (petroleum diesel). Thus, biodiesel can be directly used in the existing diesel engines. Each biomass processing system comprises the following steps: microalgae growth, harvest, dewatering and drying. Two methods of algal oil transformation are applied. A two-step method that is divided into oil extraction and oil trans esterification and single step in situ trans esterification of algal oils to biodiesel.
Seaweed are a form of algae. In term of bioplastics, it refer to the red algae which known as red seaweed. Agar is the specific chemical, which can extracted from red seaweed in rich. There are some concerns issue about emerging bioplastic made from seaweed consuming the chemical agar, which taken out from the seaweed. Usually, agar is used in food industry as food additive in sweets, desserts, beverages, ice-cream and health foods.
Having Solar panels can help combat greenhouse gas emissions and reduce collective dependence on fossil fuel. Traditional electricity is sourced from fossil fuel such as coals and natural gas. When fossil fuels are burned to produce electricity, they emit harmful gases that are the primary cause of air pollution and global warming. Not only are fossil fuels bad for the environment, they are a finite resource. Limited availability creates a volatile market in which energy prices can skyrocket in a short period of time.
Application: In order to indicate the activity of the bacteria, VFA extraction can be used. It could be used for the identification of food qualities, but in this case, it is used to determine the bacteria’s activity in the reactors. From protein fermentation, mainly branched fatty acids are produces, where as in carbohydrate degradation, acetate, butyrate and propionates are produced. The digestion of organic matter produces volatile fatty acids, and therefore, VFAs are highly present in wastewater (Siedlecka et al, 2008). C2-C8 volatile fatty acids analysis was performed according Andersen et al.