To Parrillo, a person is not only influenced to have a discriminatory mentality psychologically wise but also socially wise. He presents us with two forms (Socialization and Social Norms) of how an individual is persuaded to incline towards having discriminatory thoughts due to his surroundings. According to Parrillo in “Causes of Prejudice”, socialization is where a person adopts the perspectives and moralities from those who surround her. These perspectives and moralities implement the thought of race as an opportunity to outcast those who do not possess the same benefits as the “inferior” individuals. The term social norms is in a way similar to the term socialization, it just refers to a more personal level of influence.
A theory presented by Parrillo, is the theory of the socialization process where individuals are heavily molded by the beliefs of those around them, resulting in the individual carrying on prejudiced beliefs. Parrillo defines, “in the socialization process individuals acquire the values, attitudes,
She begins by stating that people naturally identify with a group because of how others identify with them in that group. Yes, people can switch groups but the point she makes is that whatever group you are in will represent and almost stereotype the ones in the group. She provides five faces of oppression that convey the individuals reactions to the groups and how the social constructs mold an individual. The first face is exploitation, she focuses on Marx’s theory of class structure. An example of this would be a lower class that is powerless toward the upper class without the knowledge that the upper class is dependent on them to obtain power and yet they do not expect more than they given.
Stereotyping is a way of categorizing certain groups of people or types of individuals with regards to gender, race, culture, religion etc. Stereotyping arises from prior assumptions due to influences by the media, history and personal experience. The statement: “To gain an understanding of the world we need to make use of stereotypes,” appears that stereotyping is required in order to really understand the world, and knowledge issues can be drawn from this statement: Does stereotyping prevent us from knowing someone truly and how are stereotypes created in the first place? One way to examine and discuss the knowledge issues is to look at different areas of knowledge, which in our case will be History and Human Science. Since the concept of stereotyping holds a broad scope, the essay will narrow down the focus to ethnic groups and their culture.
Stereotypes are simple images or beliefs over the attributes assigned to a particular social group, are models of behavior that become schemes deeply rooted in our mentalities to the point that we adopt them as part of human naturalness. Stereotypes can be racial, religious, sexual and social. These could be the caused of a known incident or attitude years earlier, or simply the result of frequent rumors. Stereotypes can affect different spheres of society. These assumptions can filter into many aspects of life.
Tajfel defined social identity as "that part of an individual 's self-concept which derives from his membership of a social group (or groups), together with the value and emotional significance attached to this" (p. 63) SIT leans towards a cognitive approach of in-group bias. In group members believing that they are in a group with
There is a diverse amount of issues today, many of which pertain to forgiveness. Several related to complications involving self identity and human relationships. Halberstam, the scholar who wrote “Imagined Violence”, used his work to explain possible productive places for marginalized groups. Marginalized groups refer to social disadvantages within society. He described these disadvantages by indicating social change through fear, humanization and education for privileged groups.
Anti-oppressive practice focuses on the structural inequalities and places the blame that service users internalize on the structures and systems themselves (Ajandi, 2018). Humanistic and social justice values and ideas shape anti-oppressive practice (Healy, 2015). They address inequalities that affect opportunities of service users, due to the interlocking of social relations and oppression (Burke & Harrison, 2002). AOP aims to identify oppressions and define ways in which social workers can attempt to become anti-oppressive, avoid discomfort, and end oppression to service users (Strega, 2007). It highlights mutual involvement between the social worker and the service user, challenging forms of oppression and inequalities (Burke & Harrison, 2002), and presents the idea that service users do not occupy a “single identity”, but instead have interlocking oppressions that work together to put clients at a social disadvantage (Strega, 2007).
Matsumoto et al. (2007), however, make a distinction between these two terms. They view adaptation as “the process of altering one’s behaviour to fit in with a changed environment or circumstances, or as a response to social pressure” , whereas adjustment is described as “the subjective experiences that are associated with and result from attempts at adaptation” (p.77). I have used the term adjustment as the overwhelming body of research in cross-cultural studies have preferred this term in their models and frameworks including Black et al., 1991, Aycan,
There are many concepts that underpin discrimination and many theories to draw from this paper will detail and explore the definitions, concepts, and theories such as Stereotyping, Social Identity Theory, and Conflict Theory which are all to the fore in prejudice and discrimination. It will seek to examine current research and suggest strategies based on best practice and evidence to combat discrimination and prejudice within organisations to allow for a healthy productive workforce. Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect negative attitude in the direction of an individual based exclusively on the individual’s affiliation with a social group, a prejudiced person might not act on their attitude. Therefore, someone can be biased to a definite