What really distinguishes each conceptis the ethical dimension of professionalism that is “institutionalized in the profession’s social contract” (Sullivan 2005, p. 23) with the public. ForSullivan (2004,2005), this dimension is the most essential, yet most jeopardized, dimension of professionalism. Sullivan (2004)has further argued that professionals and their professions are directly pledged to the ideals of public service. Professionals make an implicit pledge and social contract with the public that they will deploy their skills and expertise to advance “the social values in the interest of those they serve” (Sullivan 2004,p. 15).
In social capital research, scholars typically assume a connection between networks and norms, and argue that increase in social capital produce positive outcome, though not always but often (Horne 2007). Since norms are formed and maintained by networks of interpersonal interactions beyond agreements (Friedkin 2001), they will form a strong influence on group-based behaviour and are difficult to change (Parks 2011). Hence in various instances, norms are seen as basis of building and maintaining personalised trust, and also to define what actions are acceptable or unacceptable (Lyon 2000) - providing a social standard of behaviour that drives the coordination for individuals during conflict situations (Fujiwara and Postlewaite 1995). Thus, norms are more precisely described as: (i) a behavioural regularity (Coleman 1990; Horne 2001) (ii) It is based on a socially shared belief how one ought to behave, which triggers (iii) the enforcement of the prescribed behaviour by informal social sanctions (Fehr and Gachter 1998; 2000). In nutshell, norms are rules about the behaviour that are enforced through social sanctions affecting the people behaviour (Coleman 1990; Horne 2001).
Ethical Considerations when conducting social research Question 1: Describe ethical issues associated with conducting research with culturally diverse, socially disenfranchised, and vulnerable populations. As students and practitioners of Social Work; national and personified codes demonstrate the importance of; personal autonomy and self-determination, with protections of vulnerable populations, with promotion of social welfare and equity for all. Including provisions upholding ethical standards and considerations when researching culturally diverse, socially disenfranchised and vulnerable populations (Gostin, 1991). Ethically speaking; researchers should treat individuals fairly with relevance and unbiased selection. Keeping all participants free of discomfort and harm, with awareness of benefits and risks involved or potentially involved.
Social responsibility is defined as a honest and right explanation of why something works or happens the way it does, dealing with person’s duty and action that affects the community of people and all good people in the world. However, this topic falls into one part of a group that includes civic responsibility. These actions that are involving democratic legal control, the well-being of the community and personal relations, duties to provide for the community, and as well as social responsibility.When the balance between the three is created, a socially responsible American is believed to be produced. To maintain the balance, one must show moral and ethical qualities. These qualities are displayed in many ways including: social interaction,
Further, the principle of subsidiarity should be applied in the social work practices with the most affected members of the society. The central aspect of subsidiarity is the recognition of human dignity and every subject’s indisputable worthiness. Having this in mind, a social worker should consider his client as a human being in his totality (Petružytė, Girdzijauskienė, Gvaldaitė, 2004). If one follows this principle, he does not affect the dignity in the helping process; when the dignity is already affected or violated, he helps to restore it. Every individual feels a necessity for fulfilment and happiness – these are the main aspirations; all the rest of necessities are circumstanced by this aspiration (Vittadini, 1997).
According to Lena Dominelli and Malcolm Payne, anti-oppressive practice is a type of social work practice that concentrates on social inequality and structural shortfalls in the relationship between social workers and the service user. (Payne, 2002). This type of social work practice addresses the service user’s needs despite their social status by providing a suitable and responsive approach. Central to anti-oppressive practice is a humanistic and person centered approach which incorporates egalitarian values that are concerned with the implementation of social justice. (Dominelli,
Murthey and Klugman further suggests to establish strong democracy , media and strong social movement for promotion as pre- requisite for community participation in Sexual and Reproductive health and promote culture of claiming rights . It was noted by Lodenstein et al ( 2013) that social accountability effectiveness is influenced by contextual situation . In a critical realist synthesis of literature on social accountability, they have presented a hypothesized framework of Social Accountability with configuration of context , mechanism and outcome , summarized that SA is context sensitive and outcomes are triggers by mechanisms through Citizen engagement and collective action (Lodenstein, Dieleman, Gerretsen, & Broerse,
Public Ethics Public ethics is related to public life. Public life means that vast collection of political, cultural, social and economic structures, organizations and institutions, including the workplace, which make up cohesive societies. People who are engaged in leadership positions and who actually influence the lives of others are engaged in public life. A society is said to be healthy if there is a widespread participation by its citizens in public affairs and in the institutions that make up civil society. Each of us has the obligation to contribute to the building of social capital, that is to say, to the forces and influences which bind us in community spirit and concern for each other.
Relational exchange Theory Relational exchange theory is based on sociology. Relational exchange also can be defined as an interactive process, where mutual understandings were developed, commitments were made and finally achieved the desired outcomes. The relational exchange theory believes that the relational norms are the tools for controlling opportunism and create a healthy long-term collaborative framework. The relational exchange arrangement can be viewed as a method to fix the flaws of formal contract, which undermines trust and thereby encourage the opportunistic behavior. The core of the theory is relational norms which can help build up an effective contract governance, and eventually achieve a better vendor- customer relationship.
Institutional trust is the trust in the formal institutions of governances. 3.02 Norms - Social norms are shared understanding in a community about what actions are proper or correct, or improper or incorrect, and actors enforce norms to perpetuate the social systems to which they are committed (Bendor and Swistak, 2001, Coleman, 1990). To put it in simple words, social norms are what people would generally do in a certain situation based on the expectations they know the society has from them. Social norms go hand in hand with formal and informal sanctions, which ensure that norms are a part of social