Because many syndromes and other related conditions comprise the commonly known “spectrum,” addressing autism can be a challenge. “Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. They include Rett Syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental-disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and
INTRODUCTION Autism is a spectrum disorder characterized by deficits in social skills and language and the presence of restrictive and repetitive interests (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). About one-third to one-half of individuals with autism are not able to communicate their daily needs (Noens, 2006). Children with autism have varying degrees of difficulty using and comprehending language, hence, the name Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the two terms, autism and ASD are used synonymously. ASD can be associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances.
It was first described by John Caffey in 1974. It is defined as “the violent shaking of a child with or without contact between the child’s head and a hard surface” (Barr et al, 2009). The age that SBS mostly occurs and the age at which babies cry most are directly proportional (Blumenthal, 2002). SBS is a form of brain injury and the exact cause is hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (Blumenthal, 2002). The effects of SBS is due to a combination of subdural hematomas, retinal haemorrhage and skeletal injury.
Topic: Dementia Written By: Roxanne Lim, Panchami Chandukudlu, Aditi, Jenny Sui Yuan Abstract: 1. Brief Outline Dementia, commonly referred to as senility, constitutes a vast branch of neurodegenerative disorders that affect the cognitive well being of an individual’s ability to think, remember and act. More commonly addressed in its chronic form, dementia is associated with a range of diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, the most common form of dementia (making up to 70% of cases), Parkinson’s Disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and frontotemporal dementia. 2. Causes There are four reversible causes of dementia- hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 deficiency, Lyme disease, and neurosyphilis.
I. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, more well-known as ADHD, is a disorder that affects 9% of children in the U.S. When left untreated, ADHD can lead the sufferer to be unable to cope in school or socially and possibly leads to depression. ADHD is a hyperactivity disorder with many symptoms that can be treated through therapy, emotional counselling, and use of medications. II. There is a plethora of symptoms when it comes to ADHD.
To make an accurate diagnosis of dementia in the early stages can be difficult. For identifying that one is suffering from dementia several visits with a doctor may be needed. The dementia symptoms usually interfere with the daily life activities. Moreover, the symptoms also affect more than one type of brain functions that includes communication, memory, language or judgment. Below are listed the five stages of Dementia that illustrate the patient’s ability to perform in six different areas of functioning and cognition: orientation, personal care, memory, home and hobbies, judgment, and community.
It focuses on the death from abuse and neglect of nearly 68% of children 4 years old and younger. The consequences of child maltreatment can be severely damaging to a child and can result in poor health, depression, cancer, premature death, and substance abuse into adulthood. It talks about the different type of abuse and neglect whether physical, medical, educational, emotional and sexual. Abandonment is the most common type of commitment in contradiction of children. It also focuses on the solutions and outcomes of helping new parents gain knowledge of basic parenting skills by matching new families with trained nurses or
Introduction There have been a variety of studies, which have established how disruptions to attachment and bonding can negatively effect on emotional and psychological development. Family separation and loss experiences have been clearly identified as a risk factor for mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Way of thinking, temperament and experiences all things play important roles, children who have had broken up relationships with primary caregivers are more likely to have compromised mental health. Separation and loss can be traumatic and its impact depends on the situation of the separation or loss. The work of Van der Kolk (1996) and others (Glaser, 1998) also work on the effect of attachment on mental health ,time addition ,situation ,or conflict between child r care giver, sometimes effect psychological and biologically.
The post-natal causes are being born prematurely and also, when born premature, babies are more prone to infections causing deafness. Lacking oxygen and severe cases of jaundice are also causes. In early childhood, kids can get this by a severe head injury or different infections. People over 65 make up about 1/3 of everyone with hearing loss. About 50% of cases are preventable.
Moreover, backward and forward chaining was accessed .The key wards used during searching were major depression, cognitive behavioral therapy ,combined CBT and antidepressant ,reduce depressive symptoms, psychotherapy ,pharmacotherapy and efficiency Initially, forty articles reviewed but not all were included ,it narrowed to 7 studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. (Table 1&2) Table 1: Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Studies from 2006 to 2016 published in English language Studies before 2006 Adolescent and adult Pregnant ,children and elderly patient Effect of antidepressant and CBT in patient with major depression Other type of depression ,depression with substance misuse Systematic review, met analysis and RCTs Qualitative research Table 2: Type of studies used Total number Random control Trials 3 Systematic