The European Union and its Member coexist as international actors and act in the same medium. The Member States of the Union long ago ceased to have an independent foreign policy. A member State does not act like the other States of the international community. In addition, Member States are very different in history, size, capacity, risk perception and interests, ultimately in the way of understanding foreign policy. This diversity affects the ability to make decisions and act internationally.
The final result of European integration is quality of the model of the member state. Also, supranational institutions should be created, to which the Member states will transfer part of their sovereignty. Federalism is chosen as an ideological basis of the future unification, which allows adequate distribution of the sources of legitimacy and power between different levels of government, such as between regional, national and supranational. To the citizens of the state is given the same role as to nation-state. They choose all levels of government that are above them and receive from the Union government their primary identity – the equal rights and equal to each other citizens of the Union.
All members of the EU share common regulations on banking, investment, and trade. While they are giving up sovereignty, they are receiving security in return. The EU aims at preventing the same destruction which plagued the twentieth century by making each nation economically reliant upon one another. The EU also extends beyond economic policy, but also border issues, as the organization has made border control and regulation virtually nonexistent. However, this does not mean that the EU has total control over the policy making of each state.
In the collective security action, the interest of the big country is crucial while the national interests should be consistent with the collective interests. Consequently, the collective interest becomes the bond between the two (Hyde-Pride, 2004). But the role of big countries is almost decisive. They can take action outside EU’s framework. In other words, they can choose to rely on the European Union to seek their goals of foreign policy or they can take part in the action of other multilateral system in order to pursue their own national interest, which generates the inherent limitations of EU’s regional collective security as
5. Role of religious institution in the life of America immigrants Religious institution plays various roles in the life many immigrants, when it comes to the aspect of immigration process in many civil societies. Aftermath of my theoretical component by functionalist theorist has portrayed religious institution as instruments of social control, social change, integration and social capital. Today, through this theoretical hypothesis, various religious institutions in the U.S. are able to fulfill their integration/ adaptation task in the life of many American immigrants with either or not same religious belief. Those roles of religious institution on the life of American are as follows; 5.1.
As a modern political project, developed historically from a coal and steel community to a social, economic and political entity, the European Union distinguishes itself as a political union with unique characteristics. Therefore, the literature in the field analyses the European integration process, its institutional structure and governance style in an attempt to define the nature of the EU Model.This essay discusses different academic approaches and the main findings. Some scholars (e.g. Hoffmann; Millward) rely on intergovernmental approaches, while others (e.g. Haas; Lindberg) follow neofunctionalist theories and supranational focuses, in order to understand the roles and responsibilities of the key actors involved (Bergmann and Niemann,
European Union (EU) is an international organization that consist of 28 European countries, and governing common economic, social, and security policy. EU policies have been established, and used to protect and help the EU members, as well as ensure the competitiveness of the members in the global market (Avans, n.d.). There are several impacts of EU policies, which in terms of employment, exchange rate, environment, and so on. Employment policy is a list of policies that define the employment. The purpose of employment policy is to achieve a high level of employment, and social rights and conditions for workers across the European Union.
Intergovernmentalists argue that the integration process is dependent on the willingness of nation-states and that national sovereignty should not be undermined by a centralized supranational organization. According to Nugent “intergovernmentalism refers to arrangements whereby nation-states, institutions and conditions they can control, cooperate with one another on matters of common interest. The existence of control, which allows all participating states to decide the extent and nature of this cooperation, means that national sovereignty is not directly undermined” (Nugent 1999; p502). The scholarly works of Stanley Hoffmann, Alan Milward, and Andrew Moravcsik is suggested for further readings. 4.
The European Union is based on a collection of treaties between the member states. The dynamic nature of EU polity, whose aims, policies, institutional structures and membership have been in a continuous and vibrant process of development and expansion for several decades, is all-pervasive in the history of the legal order of the Union. Generally, states chose to create the European Economic Community (EEC) and subsequently, for valid reasons made changes to the treaty. Constitutional and supranational cooperation between states was accentuated with the advent of the Single European Act (SEA) , the Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice treaties. The inter-institutional disposition of power with the EU and substantive areas over which it has competence experienced significant changes.
It is smaller territory within a given country that has been subdivided meant to help in administration (Drogus, C. and Orvis, A. 2012, 34). Transnational political concept refers to factors which extend across national territorial borders hence it tends to transcend the ideation of a nation-state. On the other hand, supranational refers to possession of influence or power over governments and national borders. It relates to organizations which enable member states that share common interests to make collective decision that enhance them to carry out activities without restriction from national borders.