Historically, the first crusade commenced in 1095. This happened when Christian armies from Western Europe heed to the plea from the pope to battle Islamic forces based in the Holy Land. Essentially, there have been many debates concerning whether crusades were justifiable in bringing a certain order into the world. At first, the objective of the crusade that begun in 1095 achieved its objective following the Jerusalem capture. Christian invaders set up many Latin Christian States; while Muslim in the region swore to wage war against these Christian invaders.
These popes investigated and decided that indulgences were valid, as long as they were not being sold. The Council of Trent helped agree that Christians needed faith for salvation and the Bible and the Church had equal authorities (Textbook). Pope Paul IV made an official list of books that were from the Protestant faith, which was forbidden in the Catholic faith. Books that were not of the catholic faith were burned in bonfires (Textbook). The Thirty Years War brought all major powers into Europe, including Austria and Spain.
The Prince and the Catholic Church The Prince is considered a “handbook” on how to acquire and maintain power. Machiavelli does this by addressing what characteristics he believes a ruler should possess in order to be a successful ruler. With that being said, during the time in which Machiavelli wrote The Prince, some may have viewed his book as being immoral, as it did not follow the beliefs a Christian would uphold. It went against all aspects a good Christian would live by, ultimately leading up to an event that would forever change Machiavelli and his works in the views of Catholic believers. Within this essay, one will be able to identify as to why the story of The Prince may have conflicted with Catholicism and Christianity, causing the Catholicism not only to ban the book, The Prince, but also all of Machiavelli’s works in 1559 for over 300 years.
The basic demand of the edict was that all Roman citizens were to give sacrifices to the gods for the safety of both the emperor and empire. The motive behind Decius’ edict is rather unclear and debated to this day (Novak 121). Nathan described the edict as a wide scale attack on the growing Christian religion as a part of is conservatism. Two of the possible motives in Nathan’s understanding was the religions growth or because of a grudge against Philip. Philip was secretly a Christian which may have influenced Decius’ negative feelings toward Christianity.
In view of this, Henry VIII was so determined to get his way that “he started a church of his own. He got his divorce and stayed on the throne” (Hung). In addition to the fall of Queen Catherine, others were punished for dishonoring the king’s commands. This included, the king’s Minister, Cardinal Wolsey, who “failed to get the divorce from Rome” (David 420 ). Evidently, Henry VIII was willing to do anything it took to get rid of people who dissatisfied him.
By questioning the sale of indulgences and arguing that the pope does not have complete authority over forgiveness of sins and, to a larger extent, salvation, Luther established a precedent for the word of the Church to be called into question rather than it having absolute authority. Given that Luther opens his 95 Theses with “out of love and concern for the truth,” it is clear that his intentions are not necessarily to completely undermine the authority of the Catholic Church, but rather to open a dialogue between the Catholic Church and its faithful on what is actually true in regards to God. The collective judgment of the Catholic community, particularly those who did not have positions of power in the Church, would then have a much greater effect on the direction in which the Catholic Church took than it would have before Luther’s 95 Theses.
Many crucial events that took place before 1450 shaped the world today. One of these crucial events is the Crusades, which took place from 1095 to 1291. Prior to this event, the Byzantine Empire experienced defeat from the Seljuk Turks who belonged to the Muslim dynasty. The Byzantine Emperor communicated with the Christians and called out for help to protect their Empire from the Turks. Pope Urban II responded to this call, by initiating war against the Turks in an attempt to reclaim the Holy Land.
The Age of Reformation was a movement that led to the eventual influence and demise of the previously powerful Catholic Church. People were now able to worship God as they believed and they no longer relied on the Catholic Church for guidance with religious matters. Most importantly, people began to leave the religious strife that was taking place in their European homelands and they headed west to America to worship God as they pleased. Martin Luther had a tremendous impact on the Age of Reformation. Luther was a former Catholic monk who wrote the 95 Thesis document and nailed it on the door of the Catholic Church of Wittenberg.
This crusade was declared by Pope Eugenius III in 1147 after it became apparent the crusader states were still under threat of Muslim invasion. The Second crusade was led by King Conrad III of Germany and King Louis VII of France. (Source 5)The kings planned to march into Anatolia to push back the Turkish armies and provide reinforcements for the crusader states and once again solidifying the presences of Christianity in the Middle East however this would be difficult due to many knights having died during the first crusade. Both kings were eventually defeated by the Turks and called off the crusade in 1149 without making any significant achievements during their time crusading (Source 7). The second crusade was uneventful compared to other crusades and is considered a failure due to the lack of communication between King Conrad and King Louis, the defeat effected Europe in that it damaged their economy, many soldiers died on the journey and the crusade created internal turmoil.
But Luther continued to show heroism and continued his work. On January 3, 1521 Pope Leo II excommunicated Luther. The pope’s reasoning for this was for Luther not stopping his teachings. (Althus 236) this was a very big deal due to the fact that it meant you were a sinner and were to be shunned. In the winter and spring of 1521 Luther was brought before a diet and was given a chance to repute his teachings.
As stated earlier, after promoting Thomas Becket from manager of public relations to chancellor, King Henry expected him to do anything he told him to do. Thomas Becket did not feel that some of the changes of limiting the clergy were in accordance with his beliefs, so he argued and refused to sign the papers. Eventually, this became so much of a problem that Thomas Becket had to leave England and go to France, with King Henry’s greatest rival, for six years. "The King continued doggedly in his pursuit of control over his clerics, to the point where his religious policy became detrimental to his subjects. By 1170, the Pope was considering excommunicating all of Britain.
Allen Cutler’s journal article delves in to the concept of military conflict and conversion to Christianity during the First Crusade. The author states that it was the intent of Pope Urban II who inherited his interest in crusading against Muslims from Pope Gregory VII, to Christianize Muslims, by words and example. There have been those who have argued Urban II had no interest in conversion, but Allen, counters their assumptions by presenting three document sources that imply that during Urban’s speech at Clermont he broached the subject of conversion, by referring to the Turks as “a race utterly alienated from God.” Allen surmises that Urban the implication is they were not “converted to Christianity” and therefore conversion was foremost on Pope Urban’s mind. The Pope also wanted to reinstall papal
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.
This is amazing; for God used this to show the King his power and everyone in the kingdom believe in God afterwards. God hates idols, especially ones that the Government is built around. In Quo Vadis, the ancient Roman Government is all about worshipping these false gods. Marcus Vincius, who is the main character, is a rich citizen of Rome. He has to throw all that away, to follow this girl he is fallen in love with and become a Christian.
Peter’s Basilica. Like his earlier peers that stood for a Church reformation, Martin Luther disagreed with the selling of indulgences and wrote the immediately popular 95 Theses, mainly attacking the misuse of German money and the Pope’s control over Purgatory. He argued that the letters Paul writes to the Greek Churches in the Book of Romans emphasised “the just shall live by faith” alone, instead of relying on financial transactions that would guarantee a person’s cleansing from sin. According to the New Testament, Jesus had came to Earth to die for all of humanity’s sins, and to put a monetary price to salvation would demean the significance and sacrifice He had done out of grace alone. Luther went on to question the Church, reasoning if Christian practices had came to be corrupted, then it was possible its teaching were as well.