They break down dead biological matter and waste products and convert them into useable energy; returning important materials to the environment. Decomposers are a particular important feature in the Great Barrier Reef considering the heavy bio-load. Main decomposers inside the reef include bacteria, sea cucumbers, some species of snails, crabs and bristle worms. Bacteria sis not only vital for the Great Barrier Reef’s food web, but is also said by scientists that it could be the key to keeping the coral healthy and able to withstand the impacts of global warming. Dr Tracy Ainsworth stated “it is very likely that these microorganisms play a vital role in the capacity of coral to recovering from bouts of bleaching caused by rising temperatures.” Corals rely on these good bacteria’s crucially although we don’t yet understand these microbe’s ell enough to know how they influence coral survival, which is vital in maintaining the food web of the Great Barrier Reef.
The most common treatment for these infections, caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the antibiotics. There are many kinds of antibiotics using in the modern days, but the first kind of antibiotic being introduced for treating Staphylococcus aureus was Penicillin in 1943. This kind of antibiotic stops the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that makes the bacterial cell well stronger. This eventually makes the cell wall formation and degradation become imbalanced, consequently lead to the cell to die. Other kinds of antibiotic were quick introduced for treating Staphylococcus as well.
INTRODUCTION: Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms that present in human blood and they can cause diseases. These pathogens include: – Viruses such as hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), also, parasites such as malaria and certain fungi. Sharp-tools, needle-sticks and other apparatus-related injuries may expose stuff to bloodborne pathogens. To eliminate the risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, implement an exposure control plan for workers on their worksite with enough details on protection measure. The plan must also describe how a worker will use personal protective, work practice controls, clothing and equipment, employee training, medical surveillance, hepatitis B vaccinations, and other provisions as required by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)'s Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.
However, due to the available extensive knowledge of botulism, it is possible that Botulinum toxin of a higher stability could be engineered in the future. 6 Development of new technologies such as genetic engineering and easy access to information are always the two important factors that contribute to the misuse of biological warfare agents. Through these knowledge and information, virulence and potency of the agent can be further improved to make an efficient bioweapons.7 Unfortunately, a development of antibiotic-resistant microorganism can take place due to such misuse and development of newer strains, which then lead to increased invasiveness and pathogenicity of commensals. This causes an enhanced resistance to potent and new antibiotics, which eventually lead to failure of drugs to protect the population against lethal
Available literature suggests that alterations in normal microbial community of several organ systems can further influence HIV transmission, progression and the potential for a vaccine or cure. Despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV continue to have excess non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. Much work has gone into elucidating the mechanisms by which intestinal microbiota augment or disrupt intestinal barrier function, immune response to antigen and systemic immune
About 26 million animals are used for testing every year in the United States. Some people say that animal testing has contributed too many lifesaving cures, whereas others believe would believe animal testing is cruel. Animal testing is any scientific experiment or test in which a live animal is forced to undergo something, such as medical treatments, to determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care uses. Which can be harmful towards the animals and beneficial to humans. Animal testing has contributed too many life-saving cures and treatments.
Certain antibiotics are also developed to kill certain human cells and are used to cure cancer. All these features of antibiotics are a huge advantage but on the other hand, they have certain disadvantages. Overuse or misuse of antibiotic can cause side effects and can also make the pathogen resistant to the medicine. Some antibiotics kill the good bacteria in the body that are actually helpful in various life processes we carry out. In case of vaccines, the major advantage is the fact that vaccination prepares the immune system against the injected pathogen and of a similar pathogen happens to attack the body in future; it won’t be able to harm the body.
According to the article “DNA Fingerprinting: Cracking Our Genetic “Barcode” (2009) with the technology that is provided today, scientist have an easier way to study genetics. Genetics is important because it can help with disease risk. With this knowledge, it will help to know if a person is at risk for a certain disease because it runs in the family. In the article “Can Technology Help Us Put an End to Animal Experimentation” (2012), it talks about why using lab animals, such as rats and monkeys were useful. Lab animals such as rats, have a similar body set up like humans.
Movies are not just the source for an entertainment they are also helpful for knowledge and research. There are many movies where they portrayed the real life scenario into the reel life, which is very informative to the human society. The movie “Contagion” is a medical thriller directed by famous director Steven Soderbergh. The movie is based on the active breakthrough of a destructive airborne virus which is known as Meningoencephalitis Virus One (MEV-1), as the spread of the disease grows rapidly the medical research group and the government finds ways to cure and rule out the deadly outbreak by removing horror in the society and ultimately developing a vaccine to stop the spread. The movie is encouraged from a real life event of a deadly
Antibiotic medications have saved many people’s lives. Unfortunately antibiotics are no longer as effective in stopping pathogenic bacteria infection. Currently there is an antibiotic resistance crisis since may bacteria have become or are becoming resistant to all of the antibiotics developed. Instead of researching new antibiotics, which will continue to promote antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship should be promoted specifically dealing with preventing infections, monitoring antibiotic prescription, and developing laboratory tests that provide accurate results faster. Hospitals need to reduce the infections contracted during patients stays in their facilities.
What is lupus? According to Mayo Clinic staff lupus is defined as “a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when the body’s immune system attacks your own tissues and organs. Inflammation caused by lupus can affect many different body systems including your joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart and lungs”(Mayo clinic.org). With lupus your body’s immune system fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs, normally the immune system produces proteins called antibodies that protect the body from these viruses. “Autoimmune means your immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and your body’s healthy cells and tissues and creates autoantibodies that attack and destroy healthy cells and tissue.
I personally found Chapter 5 to be very fascianitng; I love learning about host manipulation. Organisms, regardless of size or other classifcations, aim to survive and reproduce. Organisms that cause diseases are no exception. These organisms will manipualte their host so that the disease spreads to new victims, helping the disease-causing organisms survive and reproduce. An example of host manipualtion is the interaction between humans and the Guine worm.
Besides, smallpox disease developed into other complications even after the inoculation, such as stubby fingers, limiting joint movements etc. Due to the smallpox epidemic threat, the inoculation procedure got popular in other places and for other similar diseases. The benefits of inoculation outweighed the risks for children. Boylston figured out inoculation could produce certain type of immunity for the virus which can terminate the infection and save lives. Also, he ensured from his experiments that the inoculation process had less fatal structure of the disease in the human body.