.5 MAASTRICHT TREATY The Maastricht Treaty, marked in 1992 and authoritatively known as the Treaty on European Union (TEU), presented a few imperative increments and alterations to the Treaty of Rome and flagged a progress in European combination rose to just by the 1986 Single European Act. Its focal elements were the consolidation of EMU into the Treaty of Rome and the foundation of the European Union by the expansion of two new fields of approach co-operation: the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). These new zones were figured as intergovernmental commitments, instead of obligations of the Community 's supranational affiliations, a game-plan which was to a confined degree balanced in this way in the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam, where the Community was given to a more prominent degree a section in giving methodology rules and certain parts of JHA were traded to go under the expertise of the Commission and the Court of Justice. Together with the Community itself (the 'primary column '), the CFSP and JHA constitute the second and third of the 'three mainstays ' of the EU. The EU is said to stand like a sanctuary on three columns: the Community; the Common Foreign and Security Policy; and co-operation in the field of Justice and Home Affairs (recast in the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam as Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters).
According to Teresa S. Gustafson and approved by John Rollins, J.D., Stanley Supinski, Ph.D. and Harold A. Trinkunas, Ph.D.A combination of both man-made and natural disasters in recent years has revitalized the concept of civil preparedness and defense in the United States. During the State of the Union Address in 2002, President George W. Bush announced the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Citizen Corps, a component of the USA Freedom Corps initiative developed shortly after 9/11. Additionally, FEMA launched the “Are You Ready?” campaign to provide individuals, families and communities in-depth preparedness information and training, and the American Red Cross developed its own educational disaster preparedness program designed to coincide with the daily threat level. While the various programs include several common themes including special emphasis on disaster preparedness for children, they lack promotion, visibility, standardization and coordination. Empowering children to lead change by teaching families and other citizens is one possible methodology to enhance visibility and inspire participation in such programs.
The Woolf reforms introduced significant changes to the civil justice system as they sought to deal with the problems of cost, delay and complexity that wrought the civil justice system prior to his recommendations. Significant changes were implemented after Lord Woolf’s Access to Justice in 1996. His recommendations form the basis of important changes to civil litigation. In an attempt to reduce the cost of litigation and encourage the early settlement of disputes, Woolf introduced the use of pre-action protocols, the track system and encouraged the use of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and Part 36 offers to settle. Eighteen years after the implementation of reforms, it is necessary to assess whether Woolf was successful in achieving his goals.
Summary: In his book “The Future of Freedom”, Zakaria analyzes the concept of democracy from a critical perspective, arguing that while democracy is certainly desirable in view of its numerous advantages and benefits, too much of it may end up harming nations, governments and even individuals. The Democratic Age In the Introduction he points out that democratization has affected a variety of sectors throughout history, thus disrupting pre-existing hierarchies and giving individuals an unprecedented amount of economic, cultural, political and technological power, among other things. The democratization process has contributed to shaping the modern world, to the extent that nowadays, most nations across the world revolve around democratic principles and values. However, the author maintains that in order to gain a better understand of the impact that
The enabling clause allows developed countries to accord preferential tariff treatment for different categories of trading partners which would otherwise violate Article 1 of the GATT which stipulates that no GATT contracting party must be treated worse than any other. On the other hand, the nature of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) is inconsistent with the obligations because they grant countries who are party to the agreement more favourable trade benefits than the others. To make sure, these arrangements are trade-enhancing, one such exception under GATT is Article XXIV focusing on special exceptions for FTAs. An FTA is one of the several options available to WTO members wishing to pursue integration beyond that which is possible in a multilateral trade
What is resistance to change? How to spot resistance to change in your company. Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-resistance-to-change-1918240 Hultman, K. E. (2003). Managing resistance to change. Encyclopedia of Information Systems, 3.
The threat of conflict between east and the west ended. Over the same period, the pace of integration Europe has accelerated. In such changes, the country cannot remain on the fence. For those reasons, Switzerland joined the United Nations in 2002 and initiate steps for drawing close to the European Union. Emerging issues such as globalization, immigration, trade, and other issues has led to transformation of democracy and taking it close to European mainstream.
2.6 EUROPEAN NETWORK FOR QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION The European Network for Quality Assessment in Higher Education was created in 2000 to stimulate European cooperation in the quality assessment field. In November 2004, the General Assembly converted the Network at the Association for Quality Assessment in Higher Education. The idea of creating a European association was originated by the Quality Pilot Project of Higher Education Evaluation (1994-95), which demonstrated the value of sharing experiences and developing quality assessment area. It was later reinforced this intention by the Council Recommendation (September 1998) on European cooperation in quality assessment on higher education and by the Bologna Declaration of
The Charter Mark standard was revised in 2003 to make much user friendly for the organizations to use. Thus, the new Charter Mark standard was piloted during 2003 and became fully operational from the beginning of 2004. Citizen charter The Citizen 's Charter represents a landmark shift in thinking about how public services are delivered within the country—a shift that saw the interests and perspective of service users given much greater prominence. As we shall see, however, the impetus of the Citizen 's Charter initiative was to put people first in the delivery of public services—which, apart from being the central theme of our inquiry, is a policy goal that remains relevant to this day. This section therefore considers the evolution of the Citizen 's Charter programme and its long-term impact.
The issues on the pros and cons of political dynasties in our political system have been the topic or subject of many debates and its important to clarify the issue. So to answer the question with a straight “yes” and a straight “no” would not be accurate because it is not true to all. It’s a case to case basis. Many arguments say that the presence of such political powers in the local government - provincial or municipal level is unconstitutional. Others claim that the reign of political dynasties in their respective areas have improved their way of life.