Since the study I will be doing involves a case study, the narrative research theory seems the most logical direction as it corresponds with the purpose of my study. 3.4 HOW DOES THE THEORY REST ON EPISTEMOLOGY AND WHICH EPISTEMOLOGY IS MY THEORY BEST ALIGNED WITH? Narrative research theory involves the collection of data via interaction/interviews. The narrative theory data is sourced from an individual’s experience (story) and then interpreted by the researcher. The researcher comes to know about the phenomenon through interaction with the study subjects (Sandelowski, 1991).
The research was analysed both qualitatively quantitatively. Qualitative research is used to understand, explain, explore, discover and clarify situations, feelings, perceptions, attitudes, values, beliefs and experiences of a group of people. The study designs are therefore often based on deductive rather than inductive approach and are flexible and emergent in nature. They are non-linear and non-sequential in their operationalization. The study design mainly entails the selection of people from whom the information, through an open frame of enquiry is explored and gathered.
3.1 Introduction The method chosen to address the research question which homesickness is associated with changes in L2/L3 usage in a study abroad context was an interview. Conducting interview can be regarded as the most suitable way to collect the data based on personal experiences such as studying abroad. Seidman (2006) noted “When interviewers want to hear more about what a participant is saying, they should trust that instinct. Interviewers should ask questions when they feel unsatisfied with what they have heard.” (p.82-83) This process allows us to access valid data, in other words, the acts of following up, asking for clarification, seeking concreate details, and requesting stories lead us to rich and deep data. (Seidman, 2006)
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research is the method of choice when the research question requires an understanding of processes, events and relationships in the context of the social and cultural situation (Qualitative Field Research , n.d.) This document will explore the different techniques of qualitative research. 1.1 In-depth Interviews In-depth Interviews are a form of qualitative research that involves it’s with engaging two participants, the interview and interviewee in a conversation aimed at discovering an interviewee’s personal experience towards a phenomena. A researcher usually constructs a framework so as to probe and evoke answers from the interviewee so as to uncover a particular insight in a study. The interviews with a rigid framework are referred to as Structured Interviews while those that have flexibility are referred to as Unstructured Interviews. Applications of In-depth Interviews • In-depth interviews are useful when a research wants to obtain detailed information about an individual’s
Pragmatism is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our observations and makes sense of them (Allen Rubin & Babbie, E.R, (2011). In order to make the sensible study, the researcher will apply multi paradigms to meet the requirements of the research. This is because each paradigm separately has its own disadvantages. A combination of paradigms in the single study will help to reduce the weakness of the single perspective. Different paradigms in the single study provide an opportunity for the researcher to use variety of approaches and designs so that the study will compile both the authenticity and genuine information.
Cooper & Schindler (2003) identified that two broad research methods are often used across various studies for logical reasoning. Two broad categories of research approaches are deductive approach and inductive approach. Research approach is usually selected by the researcher depending upon the nature of study and its specific requirements. In an inductive approach, the researcher first begins to collect relevant in accordance to the study under discussion. Once a substantial amount of data in the form of previously conducted similar studies, the researcher tries to understand the concepts and looks for patterns that could provide explanation to our identified research problem.
Descriptive research concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual, group or situation are all examples of descriptive research studies. Nature: Descriptive research is designed for the investigator to gather information about present existing conditions. Descriptive research involves collection of data in order to test the hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. This type of study determines and reports the way things are. It has no control over what is, and it can only measure what already exist.
It was a remarkable experience because finding participants to take part in a research of such a scale, to the point that included primary data collection and analysis in an individual manner was hard. The most popular exploratory research methods have been learned during the research and I had a prior knowledge about how to conduct a general survey by administering open ended surveys and questionnaires. In spite of the fact that the primary data has been obtained by the use of questionnaire( primary data collection method), I tried and analysed the benefits and disadvantages of other primary data collection methods such as interviews, focus groups, observations etc, and thus obtained deep knowledge about those data collection methods. As mentioned in my research paper data gathered through the open ended survey turned out to be very limited, with a poor response rate. Hence limited emphasis was put on this part of the research which automatically made the theoretical section of the study the stronger element of this research
• Stating the purpose and research questions in a general and broad way so as to capture participant’s experiences. • Collecting data based on words from small number of individuals so that the participant’s views are obtained. • Analyzing data for description and themes using analysis and interpreting the larger meaning of finding 2.1 Research Design. The selected studies have a qualitative research design using a case study method.This was focused on identifying studies that assist in describing the phenomenon of the study by exploring their role perception in protecting study participants. In Yin (2003b) defines case study research approach as an empirical inquiry that
Qualitative research is a type of research that looking for the answers of a question or provides the understanding of human experience. It is conducted systematically and the answers have to be proven by evidence and data collected. The qualitative research is unique as the researchers may produce finding that’s were not determined in advance and it may be applicable beyond immediate boundaries of the study. This type of research method is effective for the researchers to find out the specific information about subjects involve. The specific information includes values, behaviours or even opinions.