Realism, in literature, is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity. Although realism is not limited to anyone century or group of writers, it is most often associated with literary movement in nineteenth century France, specifically with the French novelists Flaubert and Balzac. Realism has been chiefly concerned with the common places of everyday life among the middle and lower classes, where character is a product of social factor. The term ‘Realism’ is widely accepted according to need and time. Realism in literature and the visual art used to describe a variety of approach in which accurate depiction of reality is the aim.
Sultante of Oman Ministry of Higher Education Ibri College of Applied Sciences Surrealism School What is the Surrealism School and how has it influenced artists Student name: Athari Humaid AL-Shukaili Class:G60 First Year Semester 2 Word count:845 ID:2014592034 Submit to: Miss Catherine Surrealism is the doctrine of modern French art and literature. It's one of the schools that focused on all that is strange and paradoxical feeling. Surrealism aims at the truth and bringing out ideas, imagination and control dreams. In my essay I will be first talking about the early Surrealism school. Second, the Characteristics of Surrealism.
In this essay I will be talking about surrealism, its meaning, where it started, the main surrealism artists, the interactions with history and the 2 main styles of surrealism. Surrealism was an art movement which involved writers and artists, for example Salvador Dalí and René Magritte, these artists tried to make art with unconscious imaginations. Surrealism was begun in Paris in 1924 by a French poet called André Breton with the announcement of his Manifesto of Surrealism. The surrealism movement started during the middle of World War 1 and World War 2, people were unhappy and felt terror due to what war has caused. There was the Paris Peace conference, with this tension, some artist had lost the ability to paint, but some surrealist artists
Originally «Surrealism was an avant-garde art movement in Paris from 1924 to 1941, consisting of a small group of writers, artists, and filmmakers, including André Breton (1896–1966), Salvador Dali (1904–1989), and Luis Buñuel (1900–1983). The movement used shocking, irrational, or absurd imagery and Freudian dream symbolism to challenge the traditional function of art to represent reality. Related to Dada cinema, Surrealist cinema is characterized by juxtapositions, the rejection of dramatic psychology, and a frequent use of shocking imagery.»(1) In 1920s France was suffering from the Great Depression as well as many other countries. In the midst of the crisis in the economy the new art movement appeared and started to develop very quickly.
Realism in art is the idea of representing subject matter truthfully without any artificial elements, exotic or supernatural elements. Shadows in art and in general is a space where light from a light source is blocked by an object. This light source that has been blocked by the object projects a dark two-dimensional shape of the object directly behind where the light source is coming from. Both my works and the works of Ileana Hunter combine Minimalism and Realism to create the theme of Realistic Minimalism. To be able to perfectly explain Realistic Minimalism is simple: for example, drawing a hand by not drawing a hand but by drawing the shadows the hand casts in its contours and the elements around it.
Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists. Disappointment, discontent and distress affected the writers of Realism after the industrial revolution in America. Modernism can be considered as a branch of realism in American literature which has motivated the writers to go ahead with a new and novel style. This movement was initiated with the hope to change the mind-set of the
As Andre Breton states, “Surrealism…is a way of thinking, a way of transforming existence.” Surrealism is an artistic movement in which young artists wanted to “push the accepted ideas of reality” and present an image from un-normal worlds such as dreams, fantasies and held back feelings and free their minds from logical sense. The term ‘surreal’ or ‘surrealism’ was first openly used by the French critique Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-918) in a play titled ‘Les Mamellaes De Tirèscias’ and a ballet titles ‘Parade’. The term is also later used in the journal ‘Litterature’, which is written by the French writer and poet, André Breton (1896-1966). To discuss the philosophy of surrealism, surrealist (mainly in Paris) would regularly meet at cafés as apposed to a regular art school. The topics discussed include the art of ‘Laurtréamont’ and ‘Rimaid’.
Realism is a style that actually goes against romanticism. It is defined as “dealing more directly with everyday realities but in the process accepts their limits on imagination or possibility”. It occurred in the late 1800s to the early 1900s, and it is still kind of remained in modern stories. Famous authors like Mark Twain, and Henry James are the main people, who wrote at the time of realism. (Craig) However, actually O. Henry was rather a romanticist.
Specifically, leaders of the movement describe themselves as unhappy with the exclusion of social and political circumstances (commonly known as the "context") from the interpretation of literary works; they are impatient with the settled view that a poem is a self-contained object, a verbal icon, a logical core surrounded by a texture of irrelevance. In this they are setting their jaws against the New Criticism, albeit rather late in the day. But their hostility can never (to use one of their own favored terms) be unmediated. The French nouvelle critique and German philosophical hermeneutics have intervened, at least in the history of fashions within the university; and the new movement has arisen at least as much in response to these later developments as to a critical establishment which has made a formalistic view of literary works its official doctrine. Thus the New Historicism in literary study has emerged in this decade not so much in the spirit of a counter-insurgency as after the manner of a corporate reorganization.
Surrealism started right after the Dada movement ended, although Surrealism wasn’t on negation but rather on positive expression. This art movement had rationalised the European culture and politics in the past that had accompanied in the first World War. A huge influential poet and critic within this movement also known as a big spokesman for this movement is Andre Breton, who published ‘The Surrealist Manifesto’ in 1924. Surrealism had a thing to reunite the conscious and the unconscious experiences to complete the world of dream and fantasy which one day the two terms would join and in a rational world in would be reality, a surreality. Within theories got from Sigmund Freud, Breton found that the unconscious was the wellspring of the imagination.