The researcher also needs supporting data to analyze the novel therefore; the researcher uses previous researches and books related to the thesis. The researcher has to read about deconstruction and absurdism as philosophical and literary approaches, which depends on postmodernism in order to analyze the novel. There are some available books in the culture of these theories such as Deconstruction as narrative interruption by James Gilbert Walsh, The absurd in Literature by Neil Cornwell, Double Reading: Postmodernism after Deconstruction by Jeffrey T. Nealon, and Postmodern Literature by Ian Gregson. As Kafka is interested in writing about absurdity of existentialism, books like Kafka and his Precursors by Jorge Luis Borges, and Kafka's Jewish Language: The Hidden Openness of Tradition by David Suchoff, and Kafka: A Guide for the Perplexed by Clayton Koelb are helpful. The sources related to Franz Kafka are variable because most of critics see that Kafka is a postmodern writer who tries to bring out all what related to the social and political conflict as well as stating the idea of free play inside the language from a postmodern perspective.
187-207. Accessed October 4, 2014. JSTOR In “Praise and Advice: Rhetorical Approaches in More’s Utopia and Machiavelli’s The Prince,” John F. Tinkler argues that The Prince and Utopia can be contrasted by their usage of two classical rhetorical genres; the demonstrative art of praise and the deliberative art of political advice. Machiavelli and More represent the polarization between a realist and a moralist on political, economic, and social problems. Tinkler is a professor of Renaissance English Literature and Rhetoric at Townson University.
The author, Edward W. Said, writes a series of essays that provide his arguments about how culture impacts colonialism and imperialism as well as making connections between culture and imperialism. He uses other works by different authors like Jane Austen and Joseph Conrad as he states, “first of all I find them estimable and admirable works of art and learning, in which I and other readers take pleasure and from which we derive profit.” Also he uses the events that occured with Britain, France and the United States and their conquest on other countries. His goal with this book to analyze events and writings and using them to make the connections. The author believes that culture and imperialism are being ignored and condemned in their involvement in the reality of societies. From that reason he writes this book to provide knowledge and understanding to the common people about culture and imperialism and how it was done in history.
These changes have contributed to the change of people’s view of the world and the way literature is written, marking the start of postmodern literature. In culture, the spread and commercialization of popular culture has lead to the aesthetic and artistic norms for interpreting art and literature, as well as their value, being reduced, causing the eradication of a former distinction between the “high” and “low” forms of art. In his article “Mapping the Postmodern” (1984), Andreas Huyssen argues that the relation between modernism and postmodernism is a shift of the way of thinking, which challenges “modernism's relentless hostility to mass culture” by postmodernism's integrations of pop and high art (16). He completes this thought by stating that this “new creative relationship between high art and certain forms of mass culture” is what marked the shift from “high modernism and the art and literature which followed it in the 1970s and 1980s both in Europe and the United States” (Huyssen 23). Similarly, in her A Poetics of Postmodernism (1988), Linda Hutcheon
Image music text literary critic by Roland Barthes published in 1977. It has a big impact on literary studies, especially in the meaning, concepts and authorship. The text makes a fundamental claim about the nature of literary production, as well as in which way the text may be related to the reader. Deeply, the essay focuses on the relation and the distance between the writer and the reader and the text. In this essay will discuss the change on the text when the reader take it as a literary language text related to the writer which is make Barthes in relation to the authorship in the death of the author text and how it is related to the textual studies.
This condition changed after the emergence of The Men in Gray in the chapter six. The Men in Gray appear to people who have problem with time. Then they proposed the concept of time saving to overcome the problem. If we see from this case, we can apply the mimetic criticism to analyze the chapter six. In the literary criticism handout, Mimetic criticism defines as a critic that views the literary work
According to Stephen King (1988), there were two rather different approaches to account planning from the outset, and the range has widened since. He suggests that account planners can be positioned on the following spectrum: King argues that at the one end of the scale are the ‘grand strategists’ – intellectuals, perhaps verging on economists, seeking to rise above the fray and see the broader scheme of things. At the other extreme, meanwhile, we find the ‘ad tweakers’ – more like qualitative researchers, analysing advertisements, handling group discussions and justifying the work of the creative team to clients. As we have seen, the two founding agencies of account planning were Boase Massimi Pollitt and J Walter Thompson. Historically,
Whether the author entered those texts consciously or spontaneously unconscious. Kristeva argues that the text is the intersection of other texts where we read at least a text in which is consistent with Bakhtin theory, that each text is a mosaic of quotations, and each text is absorbed and converted to other text. (María Jesús Martínez Alfaro 1996:268) Intertextuality in literature generally used within historiographic metafiction to impose question about the outcome of using history. It is possible to access the past by extracting it from the narration. The Postmodern history is melted historical and literary texts together.
After 1945, when novelists faced the task of explaining the new historical reality and the position of the individual in the new post-war order, most realized that this entailed making a choice between traditional literary models that seemed more suitable for transmitting an accurate portrait of the individual in a changing society, and experimental, Modernist models that seemed more suitable for explaining the disjunction between the individual consciousness and the problematic flow of contemporary history. Post-modernism was born out of this dilemma. Post-modernism can thus be said to be a new cultural atmosphere in which the writer is inevitably aware of this open choice between tradition and experimentalism, rather than a continuation of Modernism or a reaction against it. Post-war novelists cannot escape the shadow of either Modernism or Victorianism and must accommodate both in their work. Some have produced a new synthesis –which is what is really characteristic of post-modernism– while others have openly acknowledged their allegiance to either literary tradition or experimentation.
According to Purwoko (2008), discourse is defined etymologically as the word comes from Latin “discurrere” which means “conversation”. While, according to (Edmoson in Djajasudarma,2006), ‘discourse” is a structured phenomenon which is represented in a linguistics behavior. Discourse consists of three elements such as discourse practices, text production and consumption (Fairclough, 1995). Therefore, to analyze discourse, it needs to investigate how discourse is produced and reconstructed in society. In this case, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an appropriate approach that focuses with analyzing written and spoken texts to uncover a hidden meaning of the text related to power, dominance, inequality and bias (Dijk,