Originally, they were a reward for pious actions. However, with much corruption through the church, they were morphed into a scheme to take money from misguided Christians. One of the northern humanists, Martin Luther, began protesting this in 1517 (p. 333). Martin Luther’s biggest accomplishment concerning his protests of the Roman Catholic Church would probably be the posting of his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg (p. 334). This act of defiance against the church sparked the spread of protestantism.
Luther thought the Catholic Church and their popes were out of hand and should not control the people as much as they did. The Church created indulgences for the people involved with the church can use when they sin. Instead of doing penance they would take indulgences and give money to the church instead of praying. The popes and the church does not have the decisions between on who goes to purgatory or not. Gender roles of Europe changed because of the Protestant Reformation.
The catholic clergy have detested the writings of Calvin and, so he writes to the king an honest explanation of his doctrine in hope that the King understands the purpose of the doctrine that has disrupted the kingdom. The doctrine that John Calvin declares
History tells us that the Puritans were different than the Pilgrims because they wanted to continue to exist with the Church of England but make it better in the New World. (Settling 2014) The Puritans must have felt some type of loyalty to their native religion because they didn’t put their religion totally aside. It is noted that the Puritans did not want the rituals and other beliefs that involved being a member of their native Church of England. (Settling 2014) The Puritans must have favored some aspects of their native religion. Entering into a new world would not give them any interferences to reform their religion as they saw fit.
In an unenlightened state, this is a comment how far and how bad conditions can get when people fail to question traditional practices. Kant places “the main point of enlightenment… chiefly in matters of religion because our rulers have no interest in playing guardian with respect to the arts and sciences” (109). Kant explains that religion is one of the greatest threats to enlightenment because, unlike other fields, there is significant incentive to spread the way of a certain religion. The unchecked power of the church and of religious members is one of the results of this, as seen in Candide. Kant goes on to write that “religious incompetence is not only the most harmful but also the most degrading of all” (109).
Some protestant leaders such as Niemoller challenged the Nazis and set up the Confessional Church to oppose Hitler’s Reich Church. This however proved that Hitler wasn’t in control of all aspects of Germany because there were people who were ready to go against him, and did not fear him. Moreover, The Catholic Church, signed a Concordat with Hitler saying they would stay out of politics if the Nazis left them alone. The Nazis then betrayed the Concordat, and banned the Catholic Youth, they removed church symbols from classrooms before taking control of church schools, which angered The Catholic Church. The Catholic Church then replied by criticising Hitler in a papal message “With Burning Concern”.
The rise in literacy certainly helped to develop religious ideas especially with Martin Luther’s 96 Theses in Chapter 14 of the textbook. While reform was usually few and far between in the religious institutions, the 95 theses inspired great reform in the Catholic Church. Reacting to what he believed to be rampant corruption in the church, Luther decided to write up the 95 Thesis that would spark the Protestant Reformation. These were written in Latin and provided talking points about indulgences of the Catholic Church and more specifically that salvation could not be bought or sold and that there had to be limits to the authority of the pope. As these ideas spread throughout Germany, citizens took up these ideas and sparked what would be
Chaucer is sending them a slap in the face with this example because he is showing that the world knows they are not as perfect and pious as they seem. Religion is a theme in many works of literature throughout the ages. In the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer is no different. In the Miller’s Tale, Chaucer uses the most unlikely character to reveal the hypocritical ways of the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. He shows that they are all materialistic, using religion to trick people, and not honestly having the heart of a true believer.
They refused to make the sign of the cross, or kneel during the service along with other Catholic protocols because they believed the Bible did not command them to do so, so they should not do so (“Puritanism”). Puritans believed pleasure to be a sin and that a person's life should be spent either working or at the worship of God (“Pilgrims”). They emphasized severe punishment and public acknowledgement of sins, while Catholics believed in forgiveness and private confession of sins for God’s forgiveness (Lowance). Puritans thought pastors should be married men with families, while Catholics believed in the practice of
Spain was in a period of national civil war with the Moorish kingdom, hence it felt a heightened need to defend its self-identity. This identity was Catholicism. The Church according to historian Hamilton "was one stable institution that provided leadership and order, as the sole vehicle of a more civilized tradition in a barbarous world." Any undermining of this society whether it be a war, heresy, or financial issue was a threat to the physical, mental, and spiritual well-being of the whole of Spain. Eventually, the Royal court of Ferdinand used the Church’s teachings as an instrument for social survival and to unify the nation.
Martin Luther believed that salvation wasn’t reached by the traditions that Church taught to follow but by “Faith alone,grace alone, Scripture alone” a saying that is used to summarize his ideal. What triggered his will to speak out about his new understanding was when Pope Leo X authorized the selling of indulgences, a document that if purchased will shorten the amount of time one spends in the purgatory. Other factors of anticlericalism were also important in the start of his protest against the Catholic Church, but the sale of indulgences that was even conducted in his hometown made it clear to him that Church does not care about the poor or the people in general but rather wants to advance its grip in power. For the above reasons, Luther believed that a change in the customs of the Catholic Church must take place. However English monarch Henry VIII had individual reasons for such an inspired fight for the separation from the church.
The Act of Uniformity mandated the attendance of religion in the nation and created punishments for failure to appear loyal to the Anglican church. The move is not surprising considering the tumultuous state that England had been under from the previous rulers: Mary, Edward, and Henry VIII that all sought to create new religions. However, rather
Thomas Muntzer supported the rebellions, he believed countries had finally stopped resisting God’s Will, and he supported the peasants taking down the unethical upper class (Doc 4). As a protestant preacher, Muntzer strived to kindle rebellions because he yearned for a drastic religious reform of the corrupt Catholic church (POV). Being the man that started the Reformation, Martin Luther supported the development of a new religion, but he did not support the violent process the peasants were using to further the reform (Doc 5). Luther was a man of strong faith and he understood that killing nobles, even if it was for God, was unchristian, therefore he didn’t endorse the German peasant revolts even though they were in his name (POV). Caspar Nutzel, similar to Luther, responded to the uprisings by saying that the authorities had been very suppressive, but the peasants did cross a line with their improper conduct (Doc 6).