Introduction Sexual offenders usually cause great harm to the societal at large leading a high level of public concern. When a person commits a sex-related crime, he or she is referred as a sex offender. Different culture and legal jurisdiction have different meaning and understanding about what constitutes a sex crime. When determining what to do with a sex offender, when and how to do it and the reasons for doing that, should be considered carefully. Development, needs, levels of risk and functioning of such individuals should be taken into consideration.
Popular biases that exist are shaped by surroundings and socializations that one has been raised in, as discussed earlier. For example, a highly white area may view their counterparts as hostile, dangerous, criminal and concentrated in certain areas in which all crime occurs, and this may result in over policing (Sampson and Raudenbush 2004). This forces typical profiling and generalizations of crime on the basis of no real harm or threat. However, police are an institution that is present to protect “the people”, although “the people” has been subjectively shifted to support the popular belief or ideal while maintaining order (Sampson and Raudenbush 2004). According to a study on views of racism and unjust treatment, the majority of white individuals do not see racism as apart of law enforcement practices and that racism is not an issue within (Pew Research Center’s Social and Demographic Trends Project 2016) .
The characteristics of cultural imperialism can be observed not only in the global scale, but also countywide among different groups of people in the same society. Cultural imperialism in the borders of one country involves disseminating the values of the authority and forcing others to leave their personal identities, cultural values to obey the mainstream ideas. As Iris Young (2004) mentions in his article “Five Faces of Oppression”, the individuals who are persecuted by social colonialism are both evaluated by stereotypes and made to feel imperceptible. The stereotypes characterize what they can and can 't be. In the meantime, these stereotypes turn individuals into a mass of others who lack separate personalities (p.4).
If past human rights violations are not addressed, they are likely to lead to mistrust among different groups, in state institutions and may also hinder the attainment of security and peace. This in turn may result in a cyclical recurrence of human rights violations. Truth commissions in this regard provide opportunities to attain justice for past violations by means of political transition. Most truth commissions are formed in the midst of conflicts or in the process of building peace. One country where truth commissions has become an effective tool for transitional justice is Sri Lanka.
The Reasons Why Islamophobia İncreases In The World? In Oxford English Dictionary, Islamophobia is defined as “intense dislike or fear of Islam, especially as a political force, hostility or prejudice towards Muslims.” This term was first used in 20th century and had its own definition at 1970s. Particularly, after the 11 September events -which a radical Islamic group claimed its responsibility- in U.S.A. most of the non-Muslims in the world knew the Muslims with violence. The Berkeley Institute on Racism Studies says that Islam is often seen as a religion of violence which supports terrorism and has a violent political ideology. This perception of Islam is enlarging globally more and more because of some reasons such as terrorist attacks in non-Muslim countries, effect of media on the people, misunderstanding of Islam, and lack of the true representative Muslims in non-Muslim countries.
Different authors also believe that workplace bullying overlaps to some degree with workplace incivility. However, the difference is that bullying tends to encompass more intense and typically repeated acts of disregard and rudeness. It was mentioned that bullying goes beyond incivility (Felblinger, 2009; Hutchinson, 2009) and negative twists of increasing incivility between members of an organization can result in bullying (Beale, 2001) but isolated acts of incivility are not conceptually bullying despite the apparent similarity in their form and content. For authors such as Rayner & Cooper (2006), the intent of harm in bullying is less ambigious, an unequal balance of power is more salient, and the target of bullying feels threatened, vulnerable and unable to defend himself or herself against negative recurring
The ICRC and the 32nd International Conferences of the Red Cross and Red Crescent have repeatedly stressed that the situation of women in armed conflicts puts the international humanitarian law under extraordinary challenges. In 1993 it was observed that the final declaration of the International Conference for the protection of victims of war - increasingly apparent in the number of acts of sexual violence, in particular against women and children - stressing at the same time that "these actions represent a grave violation of the international humanitarian law. " Given the serious and tragic effects suffered by victims of rape, the international community raised awareness of the importance of punishment for the crime of rape and sexual violence. International courts incorporated to prosecute war criminals in both Yugoslavia and Rwanda and claimed that rape is an act against humanity. Even the Statute of the International Criminal Court ratified by the Rome Conference (1998), includes a provision permitting the court to look at sexual violence crimes as violations of human
Examples of these crimes are racial attacks, sexism, arson, homophobia, rape, murder, harassment and hate speech etc. Such misconduct is a direct infringement to numerous human rights listed in the South African Bill of Rights. Some of these human rights are namely the right to equality (article 1), the right to dignity (article 2), gender rights (article 8) and the rights of association, religion, language and culture (article 5). Under close scrutiny, with hate crime issues still lingering within society, South Africa’s legal system and ‘rainbow nation’ under new democratic governance are put on the spot. Hate crimes in Meadowlands (including neighbouring communities) are prejudice-driven by locals, for specific incidents, on foreign nationals for residing in a South African community to which they feel, ‘outsiders’ do not belong/fit.
Threat’ in the 21st century. Minority ethnic/religious communities who are perceived to be associated with the violence are characterised as communities that might be harbouring extremists and threatening individuals. Numerous studies have shown mass media to articulate dominant social values, ideologies and developments, and that these characteristics often lead to misrepresentation or stereotypical portrayals of minorities in the media (Hall, 1990). The use of the media to incite a fear based control of a population, also used a mechanism to manufacture consent, through normalization, socialization and popularization. The media has also played a part in fuelling this anti-Islamic feeling.
GLOBALIZATION AND CHALLENGES TO HUMAN RIGHTS IN INDIA Globalization has posed so many challenges in the way of human rights in all over world. India is also facing the challenges of globalization in terms of human rights violation. Due to liberalization, privatization and globalization the human rights of workers, women, children and tribal are under question. Large number of displacement of tribal people, exploitation of works, low rate of wages, worst work condition, women and child trafficking, environment degradation and polluted rivers are some issues which can recognised as human rights violation in our country. Human rights issues that arise include displacement, the poverty of rehabilitation, and often, the impossibility of rehabilitation, the impoverishment that results from displacement, the non-reckoning of cultural and community identity and of rights, what constitutes development has come into severe question in country.