The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
At the same time, unique forms of language usage can be developed in different situations. Language and society, hence, are correlated (Halliday 1978). Many may wonder in what ways they tie in with each other and why would it be. In order to deepen the discussion and make it more concise, we will examine languages in two aspects according to the theory of codes, while the social factors will be focus on different social class. In the following paragraphs, how they are influencing each other and have formed a cycle ultimately will be discussed in depth.
Identity is described as “how a person understands his or her relationship to the world, how that relationship is constructed across time and space, and how the person understands the possibilities for the future” (Norton, 2000; 5).Theoretical and empirical work has been done on the intriguing questions of how does an individual select a specific speech repertoire to express a certain identity aspect and how can language in return be considered an essential marker of identity. According to (Eckert 2000:42) “the study of meaning in sociolinguistic variation is a study of the relation between variation and identity” and “the underlying cause of sociolinguistic differences, largely beneath consciousness, is the human instinct to establish and maintain social identity” (Chambers
Language is a social expression of human interactions and written communication provides a record of these public events. Halliday differed from other linguists in their description of how language functions within a social situation, so the review sheds light on the systematic functional linguistics and grammatical Metaphor, especially the first type "ideational grammatical Metaphor. 2.1 Systemic Functional Grammar Systemic
Matthiessen (1995) discusses grammatical metaphor as a way of expanding the semantic potential of the system; also Thompson (1996) defines it as the expression of a meaning through a lexical- grammatical form which originally evolved to express a different kind of meaning. Halliday (1985: 1994) referred to grammatical metaphor (GM) as the non congruent ways of encoding language. Congruent forms are the natural ways that language encodes the meaning they express; the non –congruent ways of encoding language are viewed as metaphorical expression or grammatical metaphor. In this sense, grammatical metaphor is defined by Eggins (2004) as “the situations where meanings typically (congruently) realized by one type of language pattern get realized by other less typical or metaphorical (noncongruent) linguistic
Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that studies the relationship between the society and the language used in it, through studying the effects of the traditions, cultural norms, expectations, and relationships between speakers. It aims to understand why language users speak differently in various social contexts and the effect of different social factors, such as age, class, gender, social status, and social distance, on their way of speaking. Language is a system of communication between individuals that is used to express their feelings, admiration, and to ask for and give information, it provides its users with a variety of ways to express the same thing through different linguistic forms like; pronunciation, words, grammar, and dialect. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: “Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.” People uses language to transfer their needs into words and their words into actions.
1.6.2: Interactional sociolinguistics: Gumperz and Goffman developed interactional sociolinguistics view of discourse from the perspective of sociology and anthropology- "as a social interaction in which the emergent construction of meaning is facilitated by the use of language". (Schiffin 134) Gumperz argue that social and cultural forces affect language and cognition and therefore "a general theory of communication which integrates what we know about grammar, culture and interactive conventions into a single overall frame work of concepts and analytical procedures" (Gumperz, Discourse Strategies) is needed for discourse analysis. Interactional sociolinguistics, the term and the perspective are grounded in work of John Gumperz. Interactional sociolinguistics as an approach to Discourse Analysis is concerned with how speakers signal and interpret meaning in social interaction. This approach helps the analysts to interpret what participants intend to convey in everyday communication.
According to David Crystal [7, p. 240], pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of its users, especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interactions and the effects their use of language have on other participants in the act of communication. G. Kasper (1993) defines the term as “the study of people's comprehension and production of linguistic action in context” [17, p. 3]. The words action and context, two crucial elements of speech acts in language are included there. Thus, the linguist uses the term linguistic action which defines the learner’s capacity to produce an
Numerous people might think that sociolinguistics is just another branch of linguistics, to cite Hudson “sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society” (Hudson, sociolinguistics, pg. 1, par 1). Specifically is any discussion of the relationship between language and society. However, what about internal factors, such as What is the history of sociolinguistics? Why is sociolinguistics essential for language learners and language teaching?
Sociolinguistics is fundamentally concerned with the relationship between language and society (Hao & Chi, 2013; Wardhaugh & Fuller, 2014). It studies and explains why people speak differently in different social surroundings; it is interested in explaining the function of language and the way it is used in conveying meaning. Scrutinizing the way people use language in different surroundings provides a sum of information about how language functions (Hao & Chi, 2013). Although sociolinguistics might not be a topic of interest to many, the examining of language allows the understanding of social relations within a community, and the way people convey and build up features of their social identities through language. Speech conveys implicit clues about who we really are, our identities, such as, where we come from, or what have we experienced or gone through (Hao & Chi, 2013).