It is based on philosophic grounds. The emergence of reader response theories in the field of literature teaching has shifted the exclusive emphasis on the text, while acknowledge its importance, to an emphasis on the reader. It was Louise Rosenblatt who began the march to a transactional theory of reader response, which emphasizes a mutual interaction between the reader and the text in the process of creating and recreating meaning. Texts do not come into existence alone nor do they acquire their meaning or invoke feelings unless they are read by a reader. Without a reader texts are no more than marks can a
The author use a symbol or sign to express their ideas that one word has many kinds of meaning. Symbolism is a literary elements used in literature to help the readers understand the literary work itself. Symbolism is the use of an object, person, situation or word to represent something else
The definitions, therefore, usually include additional adjectives such as aesthetic or artistic to distinguish literary works from texts such as newspapers, scientific textbooks, magazines, legal documents, brochures, and so on. Hamlyn (1998) stated that literature in the word originally meant all written language. More formally, literature is defined, according to one dictionary, as writing in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, romance, history, biography, essay etc. Not all good books are literature, but all literature is good, interesting, significant and well written. Based on those definitions above the researcher gives understanding that the literature is more than writing.
Consistently, people tell students that reading is critical and is “good” for them; however, do they ever explain why reading is critical? What does reading do except to improve our reading skills? As a small child, we learn the alphabet, then we learn to read, and from that point on, we just continue to improve reading. A common idea is that reading can help develop our knowledge and critical skills throughout our education process; in addition, studies show that reading fiction can improve empathy, awareness, and even our social skills. Many argue, however, that many who read already contain empathy skills and never gain any empathy skills through reading.
E-books are a mix of the advantages of printed books with the power of digital technology, and they can help children who do not like to read traditional books or are unwilling to read or find the printed books not as interesting as the e-books (Ihmeideh, 2014). E-books have many unique and interesting features that provide children many ways to promote their reading and learning skills. For example, animations and pictures help in supporting word recognition and understanding of difficult words. These are considered very important to the development of a child's literacy abilities (Sackstein, Spark & Jenkins, 2015). In recent times, the use of e-books has been increased for educational purposes.
The roles of English Literature in the language curriculum at schools are inevitably vital to the students. Most of the teachers are well aware of the importance of the Literature teaching to the students due to its help in broadening the students’ perspective about the beautiful content of English as a language and as a learning subject. Based on the study, it was found that teacher’s guidance inside and outside classrooms is very important to attract the students’ attention and interest to learn the subject. Learning Literature is in fact encourages students to read more and by doing so they will unconsciously increase their vocabulary. By improving on vocabulary, the students can write better and in a more correct way.
Consequently, it is not the same to face a book with a “blank head” instead of doing it full of experiences that allow the reader to seize up all text and graphic details that today 's authors tend to slip into their own works. These inter-textual connections are evident in all genres of literature and often used as literary figures in some cases. Maybe one of the most particular ones is that of Umberto Eco, in The Name of the Rose (1983), when he states: “Until then I had thought each book spoke of things, human or divine, that lie outside of books. Now I realized that not infrequently books speak of books: it is as if they speak among themselves. In light of this reflection, the library seemed all the more disturbing to me.
Literature has different meanings depending on who is using it. It could be applied widely to mean any symbolic record, enclosing everything from images and sculptures to letters. A Muslim scholar and philosopher Imam Ja’afar al-Sadiq defined literature as the garment which one puts on what he says or writes so that it may appear more attractive. Then, Panghilito Luigi added that literature is a slice of life that has been given direction and meaning, an artistic interpretation of the world. Normally, we can see that literature includes poems, novels, short stories and many more.
To understand a text a reader should not only possess linguistic knowledge but also general knowledge of the world and the knowledge activated during reading. Therefore, students’ background knowledge should be activated before reading the text. Understanding the text depends on the schema of the reader while reading. According to An (2013), schema theory guides readers as they make sense of new experiences, enable them to make a prediction about what they might expect to experience in a given context. Reading comprehension schema is often used to assist second language learning.
However, there are some problems encountered by language teachers within the area of teaching English through literature. Many instructors try to include literature in their classroom, but lack the background and training in that field. The teacher has an important role in teaching English through literature. First, he should determine the aim of language teaching in relation to the needs and expectations of the students. Giving a questionnaire or interviewing with the students orally, the teacher can set up the aim and the objectives of the language teaching.