Travel is obviously as old as mankind. Writing about Travel or Travel Theory is a delicate process by which writers on the subject are devoted to mark and record historical events, both of their homelands and their travel destinations. Examples in Travel Theory vary from old literature up to modern times with an aim of building a focused theory or theories about Travel and Travel Writing in general. It is commonly believed that the overall historical account of civilizations stems from Travel Writing. For instance, migrations, journeys, nomad traditions, pilgrimage, explorations, and great movements of tribes and people illustrate to Travel Theory literature over the course of mankind's history.
The second example I will be looking at is the European view of the Orient, epitomized in the work of Edward Said. Of course, it is important to note that while the Orient idea was largely past into history, it has reminiscents even in our day The most important set of events in the Middle Ages regarding Islam is the Crusades, which gave a sense of territorial identity to an otherwise highly fragmented Europe2. In the unification against the Islamic, or more particularly the Turkish threat, Europe found its identity and that it was compulsory to be unified for survival. Pius II, talking of the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, was one of the first figures to have used the word "Europeans"3. However, the European identity was not only formed in opposition to Islam, but also conflict between medieval Europeans.
Because it is a very pivotal area to analyze the societies, studies on popular culture should be gone on especially to recognize the capitalist and patriarchal elements used in the products of popular culture. In this respect, it can be told that popular culture can inform and warn people opposing to the abuse of the producers. Generally, the capitalist elements are advertisements. Especially, the advertisements by the actors and actresses who have influence on the society by abusing the emotions of public, aim only to sell sometimes obviously but from time to time hiddenly. On the other hand, patriachal elements in
In the novels it reflects the presence of not only patriarchal dominance, but also religious, cultural, and racial puissance. Ironically, the reaction of oppressed to the oppressor tends to hasten rebellion instead of discourage it. Cruelty, in turn, highlights both the strength of different characters and societies and their points of fragility and misuse of power, and pushes its victims to break out of the boxes they have been forced in. Things Fall Apart uses cruelty as a critical centerpiece to much of the novel’s events. Its main character, Okonkwo, is built off of it.
The dominant groups in society still provide "feelers" to the media. Multinational companies are well acquainted with the mechanism of the conquest of global governance: the control and always control. In addition to the dominant position and control of market goods and services, and financial markets, the development of global media elite ruthlessly conquered market of information too. Only by putting the information under control, they can be sure that global public will listen, watch, and do not ask anything. According to the theories of the elite, the society manages closed minority, which has a dominant role over the masses.
Said is very critical about how the Western scholars have studied Eastern countries because Orientalists have books that are only focusing on the Orient and the Orientalist as their main authority even today, the Orient being the Easterners and the Occident being the Westerners. This therefore leads to Western novelists, theorists, poets promoting the distinction or difference between the East and West and creating theories, social
Orientalism: The European view of ‘its’ East In the early eighteenth century, a new area of study appeared into society: Orientalism. Orientalism had two essential themes; firstly, Orientalism was a new school of art that developed in the eighteenth century and secondly it was also a new area of scholarship, both of which focused upon the Orient, the Asian world. With this, because of Europe’s increased focus upon the Asian world in the eighteenth century, it was only natural that Orientalism became a growing area of study in this era. More so, Orientalism was an extremely significant type of scholarship at the time, because it let European powers study the Asian World in a way which had not yet been pursued. However, while Orientalism
The idealism established and supported by violence is the backbone of the themes. Distinctively, the values between traditional Latin men and women waver because of the pre-established cultural ideology. Inherently, the males within the storyline hold an exaggerated sense of power expressed in a multitude of manners; most commonly being through committing acts of sexual, emotional, and physical violence. Women were the victims of these acts as they were considered to be inferior to men, mere objects to possess and display superiority over. Acceptance of absence of power to men was taught through conditioning instilled by violence.
The importance of this prank refers to the issue of class mobility that audiences of the time would have identified with. Malvolio’s delusional dream of Olivia falling in love with him is not a romantic one but a beneficial one. Malvolio sees Olivia as a vehicle to carry him towards power and privilege and thus move up the social ladder. He yearns to transcend and transgress through the boundaries that are in place. Malvolio, in turn, collides with the social limits, ‘from his transgression of sumptuary codes to class intermarriage’ (Selden, 1989, 168).
In our everyday life, we come across people or institutions that try to exercise power over us, making us to what they want. Lukes (1974) explains that compliance can be secured by the use of force or by people choosing to surrender to others. When people choose to accept the will of others as legitimate or right, we can describe the relationship as one of authority (Lukes, 1974). Assumptions and beliefs that are embedded in the culture teach us learned responses to various problems of survival in any given society (Schein, 1992). In this regard, in 2006, Cuff and Francis discuss Karl Marx’s concept of alienation in which he suggests that those who are in power design cultures in a way that will only benefit them, leaving the others in a state