According to Afigbo (1966) & Uchendu (1965) the British Colonial Administration did not understand the political systems of the Igbos unlike those in the Northern and western parts of Nigeria where dictatorial rulership were in the hands of a few -as a result, these parts of Nigeria had powerful chiefs-; the British colonial administration "(...) naively concluded that the Igbo were living in "ordered anarchy"(Uchendu 1965, p.46). Therefore, the British colonial administration appointed people and called them chiefs. Afigbo (1966) & Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965) were of the opinion that those who were handpicked as Warrant chief were not in earnest credible men who were indigenous rulers –though in some case credible men emerged. Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965, p.47) argued that "the people who were appointed warrant chiefs were "those who impressed the District Commissioner with their courage to come forward and meet the Europeans. The traditional rulers seldom passed this test, and so were, for the most part, left out".
There is a major crisis going on right now in the country of Myanmar unlike anything in the modern world. A small people group known as the Rohingya are being persecuted by the government of their home country. The Rohingya are defined by Britannica Academic as “Rohingya, term commonly used to refer to a community of Muslims generally concentrated in Rakhine (Arakan) state in Myanmar (Burma), although they can also be found in other parts of the country as well as in refugee camps in neighbouring Bangladesh and other countries. They are considered to be among the most persecuted minorities in the world”(Chan 1). Within the Rakhine state there are over 420,000 people who are trying desperately to flee their own country for another that does
Myanmar is a country with a degree of ethnic diversity high as many as 135 ethnic inhabit this region. However, Rohingya ethnic Bengalis are not recognized by the military government as a citizen so they often experience discrimination. Military junta Policy that being repressive and anarchists against Rohingya began to look as real since Naga Min operation in 1978. Ne Win launched Operation King Dragon is a large -scale military operation in Arakan, this operation is intended to eradicate the Mujahideen groups accused of separatist efforts in the northern region of Arakan. Rohingyas are many who suffered torture, arbitrary arrests, and mass murder .
Burmese Days by George Orwell is a historical fiction novel centered around Flory, an englishman living in Burma during the 1920s. Being under British rule during this time period, Burma is an interesting place in which the few englishmen living in the society are highly prioritized and the native Burmese people are looked down upon as savages. In addition, the British colonial government in Burma experiences massive corruption due to poor and unfair leadership. Thus, the novel Burmese Days helps to bring light to the vast political and racial issues in Burma during this time period. In the story, the main character Flory struggles because unlike the other englishmen around him, he finds that he doesn’t share the same hate for the Burmese people.
Are conflicts in contemporary Southeast Asia inevitable due to Islam? In modern history, religion differences has attributed to arise of numerous conflicts and misunderstandings. Although there are some other factors that fuelled the major conflicts, such as unequal treatment and segregation, religion often led to differences in identities which can often felt to be threatened when discrimination is prevalent in the society. Islam is one of the most common religion in Southeast Asia, being the official religion in Malaysia1 and Brunei2. Indonesia alone account for 209 million Muslims, being the largest Nation Muslim community.3 Muslims account as a minority in some Southeast Asian Countries, such as in Thailand (4.6%)4 and Singapore (14.7)5.
Rohingya is an ethnic group and majority of them are Muslims. After 1962 military overthrow in Myanmar, rules and laws have changed drastically where the Rohingya were only given foreign identity cards for each of them instead of national registration cards. This card limits the jobs, educational opportunities and other rights they could pursue and obtain as a citizen. However, things got worse in 1982 when a new citizenship law was passed through the parliament. This time, the Rohingya have been denied citizenship which makes them stateless and unwelcomed to their own country.
“Achievement has no color,” said President Abraham Lincoln when the Hutu and Tutsi tribes were dealing with discrimination in Rwanda. What comes to our mind when “racism” is mentioned? Is it when one belief one’s genetically physical characteristics is better than another race? Racism has been part of human history since time immemorial and even until today, it still maintains as one of the major problem that almost every country faces. Specifically talking about institutional racism in Malaysia, it still occurs in our society because stratification of society has yet to be abolish and racism, being an intrinsic human nature did and can lead to the devision of our nation and molding people into overly dependent human being.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo – Aryan People from Rakhine State Myanmar. Majority of these people are Muslims and some are Hindus. They have been denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar Nationality Law which abandoned them from getting any nationality. They are restricted from freedom of movement, education and jobs. The Rohingyas have faced military crackdowns in 1978, 1991–1992, 2012- 2015 and 2061–2017.
Rohingyas are the one of the most minor Muslim group of people of 1.1 million people who lives in the Western part of Myanmar, the country of Buddhism. These people have been living in this country for centuries. However, they were not given the citizenship of the country. Rohingyas were always been neglected by the country but it became serious in the year 2012 after an incidence of a confliction between Muslim militants and Myanmar police. Since then the situation gets worse and worse and it ended up with inhuman acts like killing or Rape Rohingyas brutally till now.
Lack of an alternate system of education: The existence of madrasas and their growth after independence is generally attributed to a lack of government schools in the vicinity, a situation that could be termed as ‘supply side failure’. As mentioned in table 4.11 principals (45.45%) reported that Muslim access Madrasa education because the educational infrastructure of the state, like Bihar, is in shambles. Absent teachers and poor infrastructural facilities keep Muslim families away from sending their children to such schools. Moreover, Madrasas are generally located in the area of high concentration of Muslim population and the children do not have many options to choose from due to the non-availability of other schools in close vicinity. 4.4.2 Religious Compulsion Table 4.11also indicates that 21.81% principals reported, moreover, Muslim access Madrasa education because they prefer religious education over secular education.